What does it mean to say that something has value? It is a way of saying that it has worth. Something that is worthless has no value except perhaps in the negative. However, values differ according to the entities to which the values in question are attributed. For instance, the value of a pen is not the same as the value of a dog.
Values fall under two broad categories: intrinsic and instrumental. How does the values of the dog and the pen differ, for instance?
Do human beings have instrumental or intrinsic value? Does the environment and all natural entities have instrumental or intrinsic value? Are there are instances where the two types of value can overlap? This is what this post discusses.