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Logic : Tautology, Contradiction or Neither

13. Determine whether each of the following is a tautology, a contradiction, or neither. * (a) [( P fa] P. (b) Pe=>PA(PvQ). (c) P=.Q.=›PA—Q. * (d) P=IP (P (e) P A (Q v .1=› P (f) IQ A (P P. (g) ( P <=). Q) <=> (—Pv Q)v(—P AQ). (h) [P(Qv R)] [(Q R)v (R (i) P A(P Q) A —Q. (j) (PvQ).Q P.

(k) [P (Q A R)] [R = (P Q)]. (I) [P = (Q A RA R = (P Q).

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