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    Quadratic Residue

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    Let p be an odd prime and b be a quadratic residue of p.
    For p=19 for which pâ?¡3 (mod 4), show by direct calculation that the pairs 1 and 18, 2 and 17, 3 and 16, and so on, have one quadratic residue and one quadratic nonresidue.

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    Solution Preview

    QR: Quadratic residue
    QNR: Quadratic nonresidue

    QNR ...

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