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    Euler's Criterion to Determine Quadratic Residue Modulo p

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    Use Euler's Criterion to determine whether a is a quadratic residue modulo p in each of the following instances:
    (a)  a = 2,  p = 5;    (b)   a = 4,  p = 7;                                      
    (c)  a = 3,  p = 11;    (d)   a = 6,  p = 13.             

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    Solution Summary

    This solution explains the condition that a number a to be a quadratic residue modulo p.