There are two approaches to goal setting—a top-down and a bottom-up approach. With which of the two approaches do you agree? Why?
Is it possible to have a middle-of-the-road approach that is a combination of both approaches? Would a middle-of-the-road approach be beneficial? Why and how?
Read the following case study from, Criminal Justice Policy and Planning by Wayne N. Welsh and Philip W. Harris:
2-1: Top-Down versus Bottom-Up Goal Setting: Responding to Negative Information about Conditions of Juvenile Confinement
With reference to the case study, answer the following questions:
Was the original goal setting approach used in the case top-down or bottom-up? How?
Why did Performance-based Standards (PbS) face resistance?
How did PbS address the resistance faced?
use references cite sources
This deals with a case study connecting decision theory with juvenile detention centers. the problem is that the nature of the state and its bureaucracy is inherently top-down. There is no mechanism in place for the opposite. hence, the question answers itself.