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History Questions

1. Family and religion were the two major elements of the slave community. Describe the function each played in the community, and determine if either or both weakened or strengthened the institution of slavery. Thoroughly support your reasoning with specific details from the text.

2. Outline the events that led to Marbury v. Madison. What lasting consequences did this decision hold? Was it a win for Federalists or Democratic-Republicans and why?

3. Describe Andrew Jackson's war with the Second Bank of the United States. Be sure to include key people, events, and effects within your response.

4. What led to the emergence of an American middle class? How did the structure and nature of the family change with this emergence?

5. Using Oregon as a model, identify and thoroughly detail the three usual stages of frontier development.

6. Define and discuss and phrase "Manifest Destiny" Explain how this belief came to divide the nation.

7. What were the advantages and disadvantages of the North and South during the war? Be sure to address not only domestic factors but foreign policy as well. Ultimately, why did the North win?

8. Both Grant and Sherman pursued a new type of warfare. Explain the change in strategy these men employed. Note a battle or campaign in which each man used this new strategy. Finally, was this strategy effective? Why or why not?

Solution Preview

Here are some good resources, and provided some explanation into the particular situation so that you will have no problems formulating your responses from the notes.

1. Family and religion were the two major elements of the slave community. Describe the function each played in the community, and determine if either or both weakened or strengthened the institution of slavery. Thoroughly support your reasoning with specific details from the text.

Slaves were very spiritual individuals despite their owners doing everything possible to destroy their beliefs that they bought with them from Africa. If a slave wanted to practice religion, they were forced to practice the belief of their masters. If they were sold to another plantation, and that master was of a different faith, the slave had to change his or her faith as well. Some masters forbid religion altogether.

Despite being forced to practice a belief that was not theirs, slaves were not allowed in white churches so they prayed by themselves and, in some cases, were able to have a preacher read the Bible to them since they were not allowed to learn to read. Religion did unify slaves and help them to become stronger individuals. Through religion, the black community was able to overcome many difficult obstacles.

Slaves did start families, but their family life was less than secure. Because slaves were considered "property" and not human beings, they could not legally marry nor did they have a right to stay together as a family. They were not even allowed to own their own children, and it was common for slave parents and their children to be sold and moved to different plantations. Parents were powerless in protecting their children from being sent to another place or from the will of the master in charge. The death of a master, the sale of property, or to generate more income for the plantation were also responsible for families being ripped apart. Not being able to be together was also the number one reason for slaves to try and escape (so they could see their families again). This aspect weakened the institution of slavery because it really broke their spirits.

You need to consider all of these examples when developing your response. As well, you need to cite specific examples from your text which I do not have to look up for you. A quote or two from your textbook will work well here! Please also remember to cite your textbook as a source.

Family lives. African American families under slavery. Found March 21, 2013: http://www.countriesquest.com/north_america/usa/people/family_life/african_american_families_under_slavery.htm

2. Outline the events that led to Marbury v. Madison. What lasting consequences did this decision hold? Was it a win for Federalists or Democratic-Republicans and why?

"Marbury v. Madison, (1803), was the result of a political struggle between the Federalist party, represented by President John Adams, and the Democratic-Republican party, represented by Adams' successor, Thomas Jefferson" (Malbury vs. Madison Judicial Review). This began after the defeat of John Adams in the 1800 presidential election by Thomas Jefferson. The significance here was that the Federalists were losing power to a party who had radically different ideas.

Before the election where Adams lost, Congress passes the Judiciary Act of 1801, and the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801. The Judiciary Act expanded the federal court system which allowed "... Adams to quickly appoint 16 members of his political party to newly created judgeships, thus allowing the Federalists to retain some influence over the direction of government" (Malbury vs. Madison Judicial Review). This also prevented Jefferson's party from obtaining control of the Supreme Court. As for the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801, this allowed Congress "formally incorporated landed ceded to the federal government by Virginia and Maryland into the District of Columbia, dividing the territory into two "cities:" Alexandria, which operated under Virginia law; and Georgetown, which operated under Maryland law" (Malbury vs. Madison Judicial Review). With this in place, the president was also allowed to appoint an unspecified number of new justices of the peace to handle legal business in the district, so Adams appointed 42 Federalists as justices (known as the Midnight Judges). This was also a power play to stay in control.

"William Marbury was one of those selected to be a justice of the peace. John Marshall, who was Secretary of State under Adams (as well as the newly appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme ...

Solution Summary

The solution discusses history questions. It describes the elements of the slave community.

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