I think I can help you. My minor was in history, and I specialized in European History. Here are some issues that existed back then that are valid today. Sometimes studying the past helps us understand conflicts and challenges in the present.
You asked for five, so here you go. :)
1. You could talk about the struggles within the Catholic Church. During the Renaissance (and after), scientific discoveries were constantly being made that contradicted with church dogma. This was a huge issue for many people. Would the church grow and change and adapt to new findings? Or would it stay firm with traditional doctrine and risk alienating parts of the public? This is still very true today; when we talk about climate change and what we should do ...
French Revolution points are examined.