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Haematological cancer nurses experience the threat of patients

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I need help with a qualitative research critque on the article: How haematological cancer nurses experience the threat of patients' mortality.

Doris Leung, Mary Jane Esplen, Elizabeth Peter, Doris Howell, Gary Rodin & Margaret Fitch

Abstract

1. Does the abstract clearly and concisely summarize the main features of the report?
Introduction: Statement of the Problem

2. Was the problem stated unambiguously, and is it easy to identify? Does the problem have significance for nursing?
3. Was there a good match between the research problem and the paradigm, tradition, and methods?
Introduction: Research Questions

4. Were research questions explicitly stated? If not, was their absence justified?
Introduction: Literature Review

5. Did the report adequately summarize the existing body of knowledge related to the problem or phenomenon of interest?
6. Did the literature review provide a sound basis for conducting the new study?
Introduction: Conceptual Underpinnings

7. Were key concepts adequately defined conceptually? Is the philosophical basis, underlying tradition, conceptual framework, or ideologic orientation made explicit?
Method: Protection of Human Rights

8. Were appropriate procedures used to safeguard the rights of study participants? Was the study subject to external review by an IRB/ethics review board? Was the study designed to minimize risks and maximize benefits to participants?
Method: Research Design and Research Tradition

9. Was the identified research tradition (if any) congruent with the methods used to collect and analyze data? Was an adequate amount of time spent in the field or with study participants? Did the design unfold in the field, and were there an adequate number of contacts with study participants?
Method: Sample and Setting

10. Was the group or population of interest adequately described? Were the setting and sample described in sufficient detail?
11. Was the best possible method of sampling used to enhance information richness and address the needs of the study? Was the sample size adequate?
Method: Data Collection

12. Were the methods of gathering data appropriate? Were data gathered through two or more methods to achieve triangulation?
13. Did the researchers ask appropriate questions or make observations, and were they recorded in an appropriate fashion? Were the data of sufficient depth and richness? Was a sufficient amount of data gathered and was saturation achieved?
Method: Procedures

14. Were data collection and reporting procedures adequately described and do they appear appropriate? Were data collected in a manner that minimized bias? Were the staff who collected data appropriately trained?
Method: Enhancement of Trustworthiness

15. Did the researchers use effective strategies to enhance the trustworthiness/integrity of the study, and was the description of the strategies adequate? Address: credibility and dependability described by Lincoln and Guba (as cited in Polit and Beck, 2017) and authenticity.
16. Did the researchers document research procedures and decision processes sufficiently that findings are auditable and confirmable? Was there evidence of researcher reflexivity?
17. Was there "thick description" of the context, participants, and findings and was it at a sufficient level to support transferability?
Results: Data Analysis

18. Were the data analysis methods adequately described? Was it compatible with the research tradition and with the nature and type of data gathered? Did the analysis yield an appropriate "product" (i.e. a theory, taxonomy, or thematic pattern)? Did the analytic procedures suggest the possibility of biases?
Results: Findings

19. Were the findings effectively summarized, with good use of excerpts and supporting documents? Did the themes adequately capture the meaning of the data? Did the analysis yield an insightful, provocative, authentic, and meaningful picture of the phenomenon under investigation?
Discussion:

Discussion: Interpretation of Findings
Implications, Recommendations, and Theoretical Integration

20. Were major findings interpreted and discussed within the context of prior studies? Were the interpretations consistent with the study's limitations? Did the researchers discuss the implications of the study for clinical practice or further research?
21. Were figures, maps, or models used effectively to summarize conceptualizations?

General Issues: Presentation

22. Was the report well-written, organized, and sufficiently detailed for critical analysis? Was the description of the methods, findings, and interpretations sufficiently rich and vivid?
General Issues: Researcher Credibility

23. Do the researchers' clinical, substantive, or methodologic qualifications and experience enhance confidence in the findings and their interpretations?
Global Issues: Summary Assessment

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https://brainmass.com/health-sciences/disability-and-community-wellness/haematological-cancer-nurses-experience-threat-patients-629224

Solution Preview

1. Does the abstract clearly and concisely summarize the main features of the report?
Introduction: Statement of the Problem

The abstract in this particular study was effective in providing a concise overview of the problem as it eloquently highlighted the conundrum faced by nurses who work in the cancer patients wherein the research wanted to analyze how nurses consistently dealt with the threat of their patients dying. The abstract highlighted the specific cancer unit, which was a malignant haematology unit that was located in Ontario, Canada. The abstract provided information on the methodology used for the study, the sample size of the study, and the qualitative research techniques that were used throughout the study.
In reference to the statement of the problem, this was less clear as the authors did not explicitly state the problem in laymen terms. In reference to the actual problem, from what I can deduce as a researcher myself who has engaged in scholarly research for over 14 years, the researchers were attempting to understand how nurses dealt with the internal conflict associated with attempting to cure patients of their disease and help them fight it with comfort, understanding, and care while also preparing patients for the likelihood of dying from their cancer. Researchers wanted to understand how nurses were able to consistently deal with the mandatory task of informing patients of their impending death while also trying to prevent this from occurring. Researchers found that nurses needed an enhanced capacity to deal with this complicated issue wherein many nurses are uncertain on how to accurately respond or whether they should even attempt to respond to patients and family members once a patient is considered beyond the help of man-made medicine. The researchers found that nurses were able to better assist patients with their distress and fear about dying when they were properly trained and prepared to provide the necessary assistance in regard to emotional and mental health once a patient is going to die from cancer.

2. Was the problem stated unambiguously, and is it easy to identify? Does the problem have significance for nursing?

No, the problem statement was not easy to identify for the average layman. If being observed by a fellow researcher or someone with experience in academia, the problem would not have been too difficult to identify, but for the average person, the problem would be somewhat difficult to identify. The researchers only identified the problem in the "results" section of the abstract wherein they stated that nurses often had difficulty dealing with their internal struggle to provide care to a dying patient while also preparing the dying patient for death. How to most compassionately provide this comfort as well as remain dedicated to providing care that could theoretically save the patient's life was the main problem identified in the study.

3. Was there a good match between the research problem and the paradigm, tradition, and methods?

Yes, there was a good match between the research problem and the paradigm used for the study. Qualitative research is the most effective research to use when attempting to gain knowledge on an unknown phenomenon. In this particular study, the unknown phenomenon was "how doe cancer nurses cope with the necessity to provide the highest quality of care for patients while also preparing them to die". The only way researchers could obtain insight into this problem was by utilizing qualitative research, which allowed researchers the ability to engage in observations, use interviews, and capitalize on other qualitative techniques that would assist in answering this question through the words and actions of cancer nurses. Therefore, the researchers chose the perfect paradigm and research methods to address this particular research question.

Introduction: Research Questions

4. Were research questions explicitly stated? If not, was their absence justified?

The research questions were explicitly stated within the article with the three research questions being listed in the beginning of the paper. These questions included ascertaining how nurses were able to engage patients who were under threat of facing their mortality, how BMT when placed into context was able to situate nurses concerns about inpatients who were under the threat of mortality, and how patients impending or probable death from cancer affected nurses ability to care for these patients while preparing them to die.
Introduction: Literature Review
5. Did the report adequately summarize the existing body of knowledge related to the problem or phenomenon of interest?

The authors did not conduct a literature review of the problem as there was little to no literature on the subject that was provided within the article. This typically occurs when the phenomenon being researched is a new concept, which was the issue with this parituclar study wherien this phenomenon had not been heavily researched before. ...

Solution Summary

How haematological cancer nurses experience the threat of patients' mortality is determined. A qualitative analysis is provided.

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