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significance of each of these concepts in literature

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Please provide a full explanation including examples, and a conclusion that sums up and shows the significance of each of these concepts in literature. Please provide references if any are used.




Figurative language







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Allusion is a stylistic device in which one implicitly references a related object or circumstance that has occurred or existed in an external context. An allusion is understandable only to those with prior knowledge of the reference in question (as the writer assumes the reader has).

An eponym is a similar phenomenon where a real or fictional person's name is given to something.

* Utopian discord
* A Pearl Harbor sneak-attack
* All roads lead to Rome (often an idiom)
* A Draconian law
* In The Matrix Reloaded (2003) Morpheus states, "I have dreamed a dream, but now that dream is gone from me (sic)", which alludes to a quote by King Nebuchadnezzar from Daniel 2:3 of the Old Testament. This is known as a religious allusion.
* Halcyon days is a reference to calm days once believed to surround the brooding of the Halcyon (Genus).
* Land of the Morningstar is a reference to Hell arising from a common misreading of Isaiah 14:12 that names the Devil as the Morningstar. This reading is a misappropriation of the Latin word Lucifer that fails to match a careful reading of the original Hebrew.
* Salad days is a reference to Shakespeare's description of youth as a time of naà¯vité and indiscretion.
* A son of the morning is a traveler; an allusion to the practice in the Middle East of rising before dawn so one wouldn't have to travel in the heat of day.


In everyday usage, connotation has a different meaning. Here the connotation of a word is contrasted with a primary, literal meanings (also sometimes called a denotation), which what the word precisely, actually, or really means. The connotation is anything else that might be suggested by the word, such as implied value judgments or feelings.

For example, a stubborn person may be described as being either strong-willed or pig-headed. Although these have the same literal meaning (i.e. stubborn), strong-willed connotes admiration for someone's convictions, while pig-headed connotes frustration in dealing with someone. Likewise, used car and previously owned car have the same literal meaning, but many dealerships perfer the latter, since it is thought to have fewer negative connotations.

It is often useful to avoid words with strong connotations (especially disparaging ones) when striving to achieve a neutral point of view. A desire for more positive connotations, or fewer negative ones, is one of the main reasons for using euphemisms.

* In media-studies terminology, denotationis the first level of analysis: what the audience can visually see on a page. Denotation often refers to something literal, and avoids being a metaphor. Here it is usually coupled with connotation which is the second level of analysis, being what the denotation represents

* In logic, linguistics and semiotics, a denotation of a word or phrase is a part of its meaning; however, several parts of meaning may take this name, depending on the contrast being drawn:

o Connotation and denotation are either
+ in basic semantics and literary theory, the figurative and literal meanings of a word, or
+ in philosophy, logic and parts of linguistics, the intension and extension of ...

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