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    Pre-Symbolic Communication Among Animals

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    I have searched online and dozens of sites and can't find a thing to define presymbolic communication among animals. I can find tons on symbolic, but nothing on presymbolic.
    Please help.
    I also need to get info on the differnces between animal and human communication.

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    Solution Preview

    Here is what my research turned up: (taken from http://www.asha.org/about/publications/leader-online/archives/2001/011120_5.htm)

    What Is Presymbolic Communication?

    During the presymbolic period of development, children begin learning basic communicative functions and rely heavily on their caregivers to interpret their communicative efforts. There are two basic stages of presymbolic communication: preintentional communication (the perlocutionary stage) and intentional but not yet symbolic communication (the illocutionary stage).

    The preintentional stage occurs from birth to about 8 months in typically developing children. At this stage, the caregiver assigns meaning to the child's behaviors. For example, a father interprets his baby's cry as a request to be held. Here, the father's interpretation makes the cry communicative.

    In the intentional but not yet symbolic stage, children begin using signals to deliberately communicate with others. In typically developing children, this stage begins as early as 8-9 months. According to Jerome Bruner, these signals serve three main purposes:

    Behavior regulation (e.g., Olivia protests by vocalizing loudly when her mother puts her to bed)
    Social interaction (e.g., LaShondra wants a hug and ...