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Multiplexer and Synchronization Questions

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1. Determine the bandwidth required to support the multiplexer output for 10 4-kHz analog voice signals.

2. Determine the bandwidth required to support the multiplexer output for 10 analog voice signals digitized using standard PCM and a TDM multiplexer with an overhead of 10%. Assume a bandwidth efficiency of 2-bps/Hz.

3. One of the 193 bits in the DS-1/T-1 transmission format is used for frame synchronization. Explain its use.

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1. Since nothing is mentioned about guard bands, we assume no-guard-bands in this question.
For 10 channels, the required bandwidth is atleast 10 × 4 = 40 kHz.

2. In standard PCM, we generate 2*bandwidth samples/second and each sample is digitized using 8 bits. Standard analog voice signal is 4 kHz.

Total digitized data rate resulting from 10 analog voice signals = 10 * (2*4k) ...

Solution Summary

As nothing is mentioned about guard bands in question 1, this solution assumes no-guard-bands in that question. In question 2, standard analog voice signal is taken as 4 kHz.

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Please reference this figure for the question:

7. A host computer is one of the sources in Figure 1. The computer is part of a network that has a transport layer header of 1000 bits and information field capacity of 9000 bits. The network layer header has 500 bits and an information field capacity of 4,500 bits. The datalink layer has a 40-bit header and 5-bit trailer. The data field can hold up to 2500 bits. A 16-kilobyte file is sent over the interface. Assume that the multiplexer is not used and the modem is providing a data rate capacity of 64 kbps. The media is copper and the distance is 15,000 km.

a. Assuming no errors during the transmission, how many data link frames are required to send
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b. Assuming no errors, what is the time required to send the file?

c. Assuming that probability of error is 10-5, what is the time required to send the file? (Assume a "Go-Back N" protocol with a window size of 127 for error correction.)

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