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Adult Education: Learning and Motivation

I need a literature review conducted on 7 scholarly articles dealing with Adult Education, Andragogy & Pedagogy, Adult learning styles, etc.

Here are some possible choices to review or you can pick you own as long as they deal with Adult Education, Andragogy & Pedagogy and Adult Learning Styles.

Fabri, P.J. (2008). Is there a difference between education and training?, American College of Surgeons.Retrieved February 14, 2014 from: http://www.facs.org/education/rap/fabri0408.html.

Fortino, A. (n.d.). Education versus Training: Selecting the Right Lifelong Learning Experience, Paradigm Research International. Retrieved February 14, 2014 from:
http://www.evolllution.com/opinions/education-versus-training-selecting-the-right-lifelong-learning-experience/.

Mansell, W. (2010). Train or Educate Teachers?. Phi Delta Kappan, 92(2), 90-91.

Wheeler, K. (2013). What's the Difference Between Training, Education, Development and Learning?, Future of talent Institute. Retrieved February 14, 2014 from: http://futureoftalent.org/whats-difference-training-education-development-learning/.

Educational Technology (2014). Chart on "Pedagogy and Andragogy". Retrieved online March 2, 2014 from: http://www.educatorstechnology.com/2013/05/awesome-chart-on-pedagogy-vs-andragogy.html

Reischmann, J. (n.d.). Welcome to Andragogy, Bamberg University, Germany. Retrieved online March 2, 2014 from: http://www.uni-bamberg.de/fileadmin/andragogik/08/andragogik/andragogy/index.htm

Smith, M. K. (2013) Andragogy: what is it and does it help thinking about adult learning, The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Retrieve March 2, 2014 from: http://infed.org/mobi/andragogy-what-is-it-and-does-it-help-thinking-about-adult-learning/

Smith, M. K. (2012) What is Pedagogy?, The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Retrieve March 2, 2014 from: http://infed.org/mobi/what-is-pedagogy/

Educational Technology (2014). Chart on "Pedagogy and Andragogy". Retrieved online March 2, 2014 from: http://www.educatorstechnology.com/2013/05/awesome-chart-on-pedagogy-vs-andragogy.html

Queensland (2012). Adult Learning Theory and Principles, Queensland Occupational Therapy Fieldwork Collaborative. Retrieved March 2, 2014 from: http://www.qotfc.edu.au/resource/?page=65375

Reischmann, J. (n.d.). Welcome to Andragogy, Bamberg University, Germany. Retrieved online March 2, 2014 from:
http://www.uni-bamberg.de/fileadmin/andragogik/08/andragogik/andragogy/index.htm

Smith, M. K. (2013) Andragogy: what is it and does it help thinking about adult learning, The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Retrieve March 2, 2014 from: http://infed.org/mobi/andragogy-what-is-it-and-does-it-help-thinking-about-adult-learning/

Blaschke, L. (2012). Heutagogy and Lifelong Learning: A Review of Heutagogical Practice and Self-Determined Learning, The international Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Vol. 13, No. 1. Retrieved March 2, 2014 from: http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1076/2087

Eberie, J. & Childress, M. (n.d.). Heutagogy: It Isn't Your Mother's Pedagogy Any More, National Social Science Association. Retrieved March 2, 2014 from: http://www.nssa.us/journals/2007-28-1/2007-28-1-04.htm

Kenyon, C. & Hase, S. (n.d.). Moving from andragogy to heutagogy in vocational education, Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association. Retrieved March 2, 2014 from:
http://www.avetra.org.au/abstracts_and_papers_2001/Hase-Kenyon_full.pdf

Palaiologos, G. (2011). From Pedagogy to Andragogy and Heutagogy: Thinking Distance Education and Self-Directed Learning, Social Science Research Network. Retrieved March 2, 2014 from: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1967851

Solution Preview

The following information is provided to give guidance, understanding, and research to answer your questions. Please reflect and expand upon it with your own thoughts.

One needs to know when it is time to pursue continuing education. There is the question of what kind of continuing education should one pursue: training or education? According to Fortino (n.d.), one should seek training to obtain knowledge and skills for a limited opportunity. For example, this could be advantageous to make one competitive in the work force environment. In education, one obtains a new perspective of knowledge or extends upon already known knowledge and training guides do not have an educational agenda, but educational agendas do incorporate training (Fortino, n.d.).

The general notions of learning, education, training, and development are often used interchangeably without much thought (Wheeler, 2013). Each of these abstract ideas may define different meanings as previously mentioned. Ultimately, in learning, there is perpetual altering of knowledge that is connected to past experiences resulting in obtaining skills and knowledge (Wheeler, 2013).

Tom Whitby (2013) believed that children and adults learn in similar ways, There is a need to incorporate autonomous learning, in teaching, in which the learner takes responsibility and is motivated by interest, resulting in ownership of one's own learning.

John Dewey (1916) thought that in a democracy the growth of the individual in learning resulted from autonomous participation of activities that are formed from one's experiences leading to ownership of one's own learning. Kovacs (2009) supported that Dewey also believed that through democracy there is free critical investigation that is reflective of relationships with the community. In understanding Dewey (1938/1990), we should look at the early Platonic dialogues in which Socrates stated in reference to students that we should be "meeting them where they are" (Kovacs, 2009, p. 28) such as topics of personal friendship. From this topic one may draw out the learner's perspectives and opinions. Kovacs (2009) stated this was the heart of Dewey's understanding of the learning process and its relationship with the experiences, perspectives, attitudes, opinions, and emotions of the learner.

In the developmental socio-cultural theory, Vygotsky (1998) utilizes the zone of proximal development as a principle, which "allows us to penetrate the process itself of mental ...

Solution Summary

How adults learn is investigated. Differences in learning, education, and development is discussed. Autonomous learning and motivation is also examined.

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