alternative assessment: An assessment in which students originate a response to a task or question. Such responses could include demonstrations, exhibits, portfolios, oral presentations, or essays. (Compare to traditional assessment.)
authentic assessment: An assessment presenting tasks that reflect the kind of mastery demonstrated by experts. Authentic assessment of a student's ability to solve problems, for example, would assess how effectively a student solves a real problem.
criterion-referenced assessment: An assessment that measures what a student understands, knows, or can accomplish in relation to specific performance objectives. It is used to identify a student's specific strengths and weaknesses in relation to skills defined as the goals of the instruction, but it does not compare students to other students. (Compare to norm-referenced assessment.)
norm-referenced assessment:An assessment designed to discover how an individual student's performance or test result compares to that of an appropriate peer group. (Compare to criterion-referenced assessment.)
performance assessment: Systematic and direct observation of a student performance or examples of student performances and ranking according to preestablished performance ...
This briefly defines theories of assessment and relevance to teaching.