I need help with an annotation. It cannot be from the abstract. This is the sample of annotation. Thank you.
ANNOTATIONS VS. ABSTRACTS
Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes. Annotations are descriptive and critical; they expose the author's point of view, clarity and appropriateness of expression, and authority.
Note in the sample (the top of page 1 is blank), how each entry is descriptive and evaluative and how many compare content to other entries in the annotated bibliography. Please let me know of any questions or concerns you may have with this assignment.
Cook, S. (2009). Important events in the development of academic advising in the United States. NACADA Journal, 29(2), 18-40.
The author, the Assistant Vice President of Academic Affairs/Enrolment Services at San Diego State University, reviews the history of academic advising and important events that shaped students, faculty, and curricula. The history begins by addressing who covered these responsibilities before academic advising was officially defined. As the higher education system increased in complexity, professors and administrators could no longer advise students regarding their extracurricular activities, moral life, and intellectual habits. The history allows counsellors to understand the mission of their departments' activities and what legislative actions have been implemented to ensure counselling and advising remain important parts of higher education. Personal, career, and academic areas remain vital components of student success and development. This history of academic advising agrees with National Center for Educational Statistics in regard to the growth of the student population and the complex hierarchy to effectively serve them.
Esprivalo-Harrell, P., & Forney, W. (2003). Ready or not, here we come: Retaining Hispanic and first-generation students in postsecondary education. Community College Journal Of Research & Practice, 27(2), 147.
The authors, professors at the University of North Texas, examined data from the National Center of Educational Statistics regarding the transition of first-generation Hispanic students from high school to the first years of undergraduate coursework. They found the importance of providing rigorous coursework in high school vital in retaining first generation students in college. Students that did not have academically rigorous coursework in high school had higher attrition rates. There are great implications for counsellors from both high schools and colleges, such as advising students in high school to take math and English in the senior year to avoid receiving low placement scores. Counsellors at both levels should be advising first-generation students to understand degree options and what the differences are between secondary and postsecondary educational institutions. The study also found greater success with first-generation students who received outreach counselling from college counsellors regarding admissions and financial aid. This study aligns with findings from Jeanne and Moore (2008) who found early intervention to be the key to success with first-generation students.
Forbus, P. R., Newbold, J. J., & Mehta, S. S. (2011). First-generation university students: Motivation, academic success, and satisfaction with the university experience. International Journal of Educational Research, 6(2), 34-55.
The authors, researchers at Sam Houston State University, studied the difference between first-generation college students and continuing-generation college students. They examined motivational, academic, and satisfaction levels of each group of students. They also studied the different family backgrounds and characteristics of both groups of students. First-generation students were more likely than continuing-generation students to have a strong desire to graduate as soon as possible. Secondly, first-generation students are less interested than continuing-generation students in having a good time in college. These results could assist counsellors working with first-generation students to alleviate the pressure of deadlines to complete coursework that could lead to an overwhelming workload. Counsellors can also encourage students from first-generation backgrounds to participate in on-campus activities and discover what hinders them from participating. This study is in agreement with previous studies such as Mehta, Newbold, and O'Rourke (2011) of first-generation students feeling isolated at universities.
Garcia, V. (2010). First-generation college students: How co-curricular involvement can assist with success. The Vermont Connection, 31, 46-52.
The author, a graduate assistant at the University of New Mexico, researched first-generation student characteristics and the challenges they experience when connecting with co-curricular activities. Furthermore, the author discusses the positive results of higher retention rates among first-generation students when they become involved in co-curricular activities. First-generation students are encouraged to participate in campus-wide events, department activities, student clubs, and serve on committees and design activities for clubs. However, due to first-generation students working off-campus, they contribute less to co-curricular activities and feel isolated from the college culture and academics. Counsellors are urged to encourage students to find employment in areas related to their academic field or on-campus. Students who feel more connected to the college environment were found to have a higher direction and drive. These findings agree with a study conducted by Pascarella and Terenzini (1991) that first-generation students work more hours than continuing-generation students.
Gardner, S. K. (2009). Student development theory: A primer. ASHE Higher Education Report, 34(6), 15-28.
The author, a professor of higher education at the University of Maine, reviews the multiple theories of student development. She covers psychosocial development, social identity development, racial identity development, and cognitive development. With each type of development, the author discusses how the theories relate to student development, specifically the college years of 18 to middle adulthood. After integrating each of the theories, the author provides further insight into doctoral student development. These theories of development tie into college student development by giving counsellors a thorough understanding of where students should be in terms of thinking, identity, and social skills. First-generation college students have many obstacles in dealing with these three areas, because it is a new frontier for them. Counsellors are the pivotal professionals to assist these students in working through these issues. The theories discussed by Gardner support previous studies from Levinson's (1990) theories of student development and integration into the college environment.
Giancola, J., Munz, D. C., & Trares, S. (2008). First- versus continuing-generation adult students on college perceptions: Are differences actually because of demographic variance? Adult Education Quarterly, 58(3), 214-228.
The authors, professors at Saint Louis University, researched the first-generation adult student population. They hypothesized that first-generation students would have higher importance and lower satisfaction scores on each of the variables relating to academic advising, instructional effectiveness, registration effectiveness, campus climate, safety and security, academic services, admissions and financial aid effectiveness, and service excellence. The results indicated that females consisted of a larger variance between first- and continuing-generation students on importance. No significant difference in satisfaction was established. These results give counsellors guidance when working with first-generation students, specifically females, and the unique differences in the college experience between the two genders. These results align with the National Center for Educational Statistics (2011) showing that the number of female students in higher education continues to be higher than males; therefore, more attention should be given to the needs males in higher education.
The authors, a doctoral student and a professor at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, performed a case study with high school juniors to improve self-efficacy, outcome experiences, and goals to help with career and academic decision-making. They specifically examine first-generation high school juniors using Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT). SCCT examines how career and academic interests mature, how career choices are developed, and how these choices are turned into action. It was recommended that counsellors challenge students' beliefs of self-efficacy if the student does not believe he or she can succeed in college or cannot attain a certain career. The counsellor must examine why these doubts exist. The study recommends summer enrichment programs held on college campuses to demystify the college setting and to build confidence within the students. This study aligns with Garcia (2010) in co-curricular activities that enhance the success rates of first-generation students.
Giddan, N. S., Levy, D. M., Estroff, R. M., Cline, J. C., Altman, E. B., Isham, K. A., & Weiss, S. J. (1987). College counseling and student retention: Data and Speculations. Journal of Student Psychotherapy 1(3), 5-28.
The authors, directors and counsellors at multiple universities, studied 1,221 freshmen college students who utilized counselling services to verify the hypothesis: Does counselling assist in higher retention rates among students? The findings indicate counselling had no any significant impact on the retention rates of freshmen college students. Freshmen who used the counselling services had higher attrition rates than retention. No attendance differences among students who were counselled were found due to age, gender, or counselling issue. A longitudinal, quasi-experimental, controlled study showed counselling to be the weakness in student retention. The findings are in contrast to Mehta, Newbold, and O'rourke (2011) results who indicate counselling assists in retention but not academic performance.
Jeanne, R. M. & Moore, J. L. (2008). College readiness and academic preparation for postsecondary education: Oral histories of first-generation urban college students. Urban Education, 43(2), 240-261 doi:10.1177/0042085907312346
The authors, a secondary school counsellor and a professor at Ohio State University, performed a study on 13 first-generation college students from the same urban high school. The qualitative methodology consisted of biographical questionnaires and interviews. The commonalities that were examined as a result of the interviews and questionnaires were the preparation students received in high school and the skills they lacked for success in college. Taking Advanced Placement coursework in high school was a factor that prepared first-generation students for college. They also discussed the encouragement and information received by staff in the career centre, counsellors, and teachers. The educators were found to be the main sources of information to first-generation students since their parents could not provide insight on the college experience or requirements. These findings align with other studies, such as Esprivalo-Harnell and Forney (2003), regarding the importance of rigorous coursework in high school for first-generation college students.
Lee, D., Olson, E. A., Locke, B., Michelson, S. T., & Odes, E. (2009). The effects of college counselor services on academic performance and retention. Journal of College Student Development 50(3), 305-319.
The authors, counsellors and counselling centre directors at several state universities, sampled 10,009 college freshmen and transfer students. The college students who received counselling services were more likely to remain at the universities compared to the group of students who received no counselling services. Counselling services did not show any significant results in academic performance. The implications for counsellors are the importance of motivational factors that play into retention. Academic counselling skills should be strengthened in order to educate students, especially first-generation students who are likely to drop-out. The results align with a previous study showing no improvement in academics from Gidden et al (1987). This previous study was contrary to the improvements in retention discovered by Lee et al (2009).
Lippincott, J. A., & German, N. (2007). From Blue Collar to Ivory Tower: Counseling First-Generation, Working-Class Students. In J. A. Lippincott, R. B. Lippincott, J. A. E. Lippincott, & R. B. E. Lippincott (Eds.), Special populations in college counseling A handbook for mental health professionals (pp. 89-98). American Counseling Association.
The authors, professors and directors of intern training at Kutztown University Counseling Center, provide an overview for counsellors to consider when working with first-generation college students. Obstacles include the student's transition from a family focus to an independent focus. Feelings of being accepted by peers and the institution had major effects on whether students persisted or dropped out. First-generation students at elite universities reported higher feelings of isolation, depression, and anxiety than first-generation students at two-year community colleges. At public four-year regional universities, first-generation students reported mixed emotions, but many were able to find niches or social groups of similar backgrounds. These findings are aligned with Mehta, Newbold, and O'Rourke (2011) findings of student attrition reasons.
Mehta, S. S., Newbold, J. J., & O'rourke, M. A. (2011). Why do first-generation students fail? College Student Journal, 45(1), 20-35.
The authors, researchers at Sam Houston State University, discovered that first-generation college students are less involved, have less social and financial support, and do not have skilled coping strategies. Furthermore, they showed less social and academic satisfaction, greater difficulty adapting to the college culture, were likely to be transfer students from community colleges, and had different family backgrounds than continuing-generation college students. Cultural capital lacked significantly with first-generation students. First-generation students lacked understanding of the value of being involved with on-campus activities and in the overall developmental changes that occur when engaging in student activities outside of the classroom. These results align with the Mehta, Newbold, and Forbus (2011) study, indicating that first-generation students have a lower overall satisfaction with the college experience and are more likely to feel isolated in the college setting. This information can assist counsellors by to encourage first-generation students to become active in campus activities and learn about effective coping strategies, but to select the appropriate university when transferring to ensure a correct match.
National Center for Educational Statistics, Institute of Education Science. (2010). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic minorities (NCES Publication No. 2010015). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010015/indicator1_5.asp
The authors, researchers for the National Center for Educational Statistics and Education Statistics Institute, focused on the overall trend of racial and ethnic minorities in regards to their achievements and obstacles. In 2008, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States made up 71.6 percent of students aged 6 to 18 years old whose mothers did not have a bachelor's degree or higher. 67.3 percent of children aged 6 to 18 years old who were of racial and ethnic minorities, had fathers without a bachelor's degree in 2008. These students would also be first-generation college students if they decided to attend. These statistics are important for counselors to understand when coordinating outreach events to potential college students at various elementary and secondary institutions. Working with early academic outreach programs can lead many students into colleges. These statistics are in alignment with Choy's (2001) study of the percentages of first-generation students.
Owens, D., Lacey, K., Rawls, G., & Holbert-Quince, J. (2010). First-generation African-American male college students: Implications for career counselors, Career Development Quarterly, 58(4), 291-300.
The authors, researchers and counselors from various state universities, explore the career-development needs of African-American men attending colleges and universities. The researchers provide implications for career counselors who assist first-generation African-American students. Career counselors have to be willing to discuss topics such as racism and discrimination, encourage students to join student and professional organizations, explain the importance of networking with faculty and alumni, and assist students to manage and negotiate relationships throughout society. The authors list 17 ways that career counselors can meet these goals. Because first-generation, African-American males represent a disproportionately small percentage of the college student population, it is vital for counselors to ensure they are retained as much as possible. The 17 approaches deal with topics from outreach activities that draw in first-generation African-American students, who may be reluctant to seek assistance from counselors, and for counselors to be an active voice for policies and procedures that integrate mentors for African-American men. These results agree with previous studies conducted by Gibbons (2004) that examine ways of co-curricular activities that encourage retention.
Studer, J. M. (2011). Integrated, marginal, and resilient: Race, class, and the diverse experience of white first-generation college students. International Journal Of Qualitative Studies In Education (QSE), 24(1), 117-136. doi:10.1080/09518391003641916
The author, an assistant professor of sociology at the University of North Florida, used in-depth interviews of 28 White first-generation college students to understand their academic, social, and cultural adjustment. The researchers discovered patterns of adjustment among students. For instance, half of the surveyed students expressed few feelings of marginality and were well-integrated into the campus; a quarter experienced debilitating and persistent marginality; and an additional quarter overcame their feelings of marginality to become engaged on-campus. For these students, whiteness was both an asset and liability. Whiteness is correlated with higher levels of socioeconomic status and acts as a default signal for middle-class status. In this perspective, whiteness acted as an asset because White students can blend in with other social classes. Yet, being White can be a liability if the student comes from an economically disadvantage home. Such students may find it difficult to identify with others with whom they share experiences and can draw strengths and validation. This may result in disengagement from college activities and eventual attrition. These findings align with Owens' (2010) findings regarding isolation among African-American first-generation male college students.
First of all, an abstract is at the beginning of an article that is basically a condensed version of the article itself, and highlights the main points that are covered in the article. It briefly describes the content and the extent of the writing. An annotation or, as you are showing in the posting, an annotated bibliography is a brief description of what you are planning to use from the article, journal, or book you are citing. The annotated bibliography would be different for everyone, depending on what the topic of the paper is that you are writing. Two people may take something totally different from one article, depending on what the person's interpretation is, and what they are taking or using from the article.
The Annotated Bibliography for the ...
The expert discusses the differences between annotations and abstracts. Gives an example as well as references.