It includes true/false, matching, multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank questions. The posting describes how to formulate "valid" and challenging test questions.
It also speaks to providing a short essay question, as well as preparing the class for the test, how to set up Scantron tests, the grading of non-Scantron tests, and accommodating special needs students during a test.
Included are short cuts and ways to avoid testing pitfalls.© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 25, 2018, 3:28 am ad1c9bdddf
I find that objective tests are much easier to create, and certainly to grade, than a subjective test. Subjective tests require more in-depth analysis on the student's part, which is why they are better assessments to check for the students' higher levels of understanding. However, to check for a general understanding, objective tests will do the job. Objective tests include true/false, multiple choice (MC), matching, and fill-in-the-blank.
First, decide which concepts lend themselves to absolute answers (true/false). For this kind of answer, there has to be an absolutely correct or incorrect answer. Anything in between will confuse your students, and invalidate the test question.
Next, in choosing to include multiple choice, which I prefer, you must be able to come up with several possible answers for each question. It is a generally accepted practice to make sure that students have a chance to get the correct answer by not making the answers too similar. Some students tend to over-analyze questions on tests so be careful that those students who have studied and paid attention are rewarded with an obvious correct answer: obvious only if they are prepared for the test. For example, note the following question:
In Shakespeare's play Macbeth, whose advice seems to hold the most influence over Macbeth's decision to kill Duncan and the others, in order to be king? a) Banquo b) Lady Macbeth c) the witches d) Malcolm
For this question, Banquo is absolutely incorrect if anyone has been paying attention. He is a man who cannot be swayed from what is good; he cares only for supporting the King, who he admires and loves. He also ends up being one of Macbeth's victims even though they are very close friends. Malcolm is also incorrect; he is one of the king's sons, and does not speak to Macbeth at all before Macbeth starts his killing spree, starting with Duncan. Answers b. & c. are the ones that students will need to really choose between. Lady Macbeth certainly eggs Macbeth on; after all, she will be queen, and she insults his manhood and pushes him hard so he can muster the courage to take Duncan's life. However, it is the witches' predictions that hold the most weight with Macbeth because they not only prove their worth when one of their first predictions comes true almost immediately, but they also promise that he will be king one day, and that no one can kill him. (They trick him with word games on this last one.) Answers b. & c. both hold merit, but only one is the correct answer. Changing the question and asking who has a great deal of influence over Macbeth's decision to kill Duncan would require both b. & c. As the question stands, only c. is correct. The student who knows the material--and is paying attention--will be able to make the distinction.
(These kinds of questions create a sense in students that you are a "hard" teacher, but the truth is that you are challenging them to do their best, and that there are no "freebies." If you want your students to be prepared with the information you are teaching, challenging them on tests makes them work harder to listen, study and ultimately understand your lessons. It makes them better students for other classes as well. If your tests are too easy, they will think you are a pushover and you will lose your credibility.)
I also like matching questions. As with multiple choice (MC), the answer is there in front of them, so if they know their material, finding the correct match to the question should not be difficult. In this section (as with MC), it doesn't hurt to have two questions that may seem similar so that the prepared student will have to choose one based on the material covered that clearly conveys one answer to be correct over the other. If you want to make the test a little easier, you can provide only one additional answer in the list ("one answer will not be used"), so that students must choose from what is there. The extra answer will clearly be wrong for the student who is prepared for the test.
If you are testing on specific concepts that are multifaceted, you can have, for example, ten questions that use one of three answers provided, with one being the "red herring" ...
Making up tests for students requires that you adequately cover the material you plan to test on. Challenge your students on the test, but don't be unfair and make the test tricky. There is a difference between a student having to study and carefully read the question, and being at a disadvantage because the answers they are to choose from are too similar.
Be mindful, also of the academic level of your students. Don't feel sorry for them because they don't study and change the test; but don't test above the class's ability level. Learning disabilities and/or students with low reading levels need to be considered.
Make sure the test is proofread carefully, and when you're satisfied, copy it, giving yourself one full day before the test to make sure the copier works, and that you've covered all the material on the test. Make up the key ahead of time to make sure you catch any mistakes you may have made on the actual test.
Mental Strategies and Shortcuts
I am looking for help in defining the psychology terms. I also need some ideas for solutions for the essay. See the attached file. Thank you.
Your department was just given a new project to pilot and rollout to your organization. The project involves assembling a cross-organizational team that will be given the responsibility for reviewing different payroll systems that Faraday Enterprises can use, and choosing the best payroll system to implement.
You've chosen Susan, a salaried employee and Project Manager, to lead this effort. Her responsibilities will be to assemble the team, identify potential software products, test them, and move forward with implementing the final decision.
While you know Susan is the perfect choice to lead this project, you also know that she'll be surprised you've picked her and that she might lack the confidence to manage this project successfully.
Knowing what you do about "the self-fulfilling prophecy" and the effect it may have from Susan's point of view, write a memo introducing her to the project and the role she will lead. Be sure to build into your memo information that will help Susan correctly understand her job, and convey your confidence in her that she will succeed in leading this project.
As part of your two to three page memo, address two of the following three mental strategies and shortcuts and how they may affect the group's decision in a negative way.
The availability heuristic
The representativeness heuristic
The anchoring and adjustment heuristic
Finally, identify for Susan two or more ways in which she could improve her thinking and her group's decisions so they arrive at the best possible outcome for their project. Be sure to use APA writing style and reference notation-including citations in your written text.