Volcanoes are generally not preserved in the geologic rock record as they are eroded away. However, the various materials erupted from volcanoes are often found preserved in the rock record. How could you infer what type of volcano erupted in a given area based on the type of volcanic deposits now found as layers of rock? Give specific examples and briefly discuss if some materials may be linked to different types of volcanoes
There are essentially four types of volcanoes:
Shield volcanoes which are common at oceanic hot spots.
Stratovolcanoes (or composite) volcanoes are common along convergent margins.
Cinder cones form by collection of cinders (bombs) around fountaining vents.
Lava (or silicic) domes are formed by viscous lavas.
Note that where mantle is melting, the magma will be low in silica (eg ocean ridges, ...
Using volcanic deposits to identify volcanoes