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    How are chromium-contaminated soils a health hazards. What is the importance of early investigation and the uncertainties that include dose response, hazards or probability and are there any long term effects to humans?

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    The main source of chromium-contaminated soils electroplating, textile manufacturing, leather tanning, pigment manufacturing, wood preserving, and chromium waste disposal (U.S. EPA, 1997). There are many compositions of chromium, however, the most significant soil contamination problem is hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] which is acutely toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic in the environment.

    Thresholds exist for ...

    Solution Summary

    Describe how chromium-contaminated soils are a health hazards. Define dose response, hazards, probability and long term effects to humans.