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Environmental Ethical Theories Table

Below is a list of Ethical Theories or Perspective: I need to fill in a theories table by answering the following three questions for each theory 1) Associated Time Period/Individual(s) 2) Major Tenets 3) Sample Application

Ethical Theory or Perspective

Biocentric Ethics-


Ecocentric Ethics

The Land Ethic-

Deep Ecology-

Social Ecology-


Environmental Pragmatism-

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Biocentric Ethics-
1) Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) was a famous humanitarian who built hospitals in Africa to provide medical care to people who could not afford it otherwise.
2) Only living things have intrinsic moral value. Life inspires awe and reverence.
3) Antibiotics would be used only to save life, not to kill germs that aren't posing an immediate threat.

1) Jan Christian Smuts, South African politician and soldier (1870-1950); Scottish emigrant John Muir (1838-1914), founder of the Sierra Club and 'father of American conservation'
2) -values the larger ecosystem and its proper functioning, rather than in the individual organisms which make up that system.
-Systematic nature of interactions, where each part is in some way interconnected with all others; synergistic relationship between nature and humankind.
-Nothing can be considered in isolation from one another.
-Value of individual members is merely instrumental and dependent on their contribution to the 'integrity, stability, and beauty' of the larger community.
- Muir stated: "When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe."
3) Advocates the development of sustainable living communities

Ecocentric Ethics-
1) Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 - ...

Solution Summary

Overview of environmental ethical theories, including associated time period/founder, major tenets, and sample applications.