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# Atomic size and electronic structure

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1. What happens to the atomic radii as you go down a column in the periodic table,e.g. from Li to Fr?

2. Why does the trend you identified in question 1 occur? Be sure to refer to electronic structure in your answer

3. What happens to the atomic radii as you go across a row in the periodic table, e.g. from Li to Ne?

4. Why does the trend you identify in question 3 occur? Be sure to refer to electronic structure in you answer?

5. What happens to the ionization energy as you down a column in the periodic table, e.g. from Li to Fr?

6. Why does the trend you identify in question 5 occur? Be sure to refer to electronic structure in you answer?

7. What happens to the ionization energy as you across a column in the periodic table, e.g. from Li to Ne?

8. Why does the trend you identify in question 7 occur? Be sure to refer to electronic structure in you answer?

9. Why is the first ionization energy of aluminum less than the first ionization energy of magnesium? Show electron configuration of each and refer to them in your answer.

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The solution discusses the atomic size and electronic structure.

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Atomic Size
1. What happens to the atomic radii as you go down a column in the periodic table, e.g. from Li to Fr?
The atomic radius usually increases while going down a group.
2. Why does the trend you identified in question 1 occur? Be sure to refer to electronic structure in your answer
Due to the addition of a new energy level (shell). For example, Mg: 1s22s22p63s2, Ca: 1s22s22p6 3s23p64s2 and Ba: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p66s2. As we proceed from Mg to Ca to Ba down the group, we see that all have two valence electrons in their outer shell, but the outer shell number is increasing from 3 to 4 to 6, making the atomic radius larger. [However, diagonally the number of electrons has a larger effect than the sizeable radius.]

3. What happens to the atomic radii as you go across a row in the periodic table, e.g. from Li to Ne?
The atomic radius tends to decrease as one progresses across a period from left to right.
4. Why does the trend you identify in question 3 occur? Be sure to refer to electronic structure in you answer?
Because the effective nuclear charge ...

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