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    Proteins and enzymes

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    1- Write a brief paragraph that explains the buildup of proteins from amino acids to the final quaternary structure of the protein.

    2-Describe how the structure of an enzyme is essential to its functioning.

    3-What is the fundamental relationship between nucleic acids and protein synthesis?

    4-ATP is the most common storehouse for chemical energy in living systems. Describe in brief what happens when ATP is used for energy. Use the terms ATP, ADP and enzymes, and mitochondria in your description

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    https://brainmass.com/chemistry/physical-chemistry/proteins-and-enzymes-288346

    SOLUTION This solution is FREE courtesy of BrainMass!

    1- Write a brief paragraph that explains the buildup of proteins from amino acids to the final quaternary structure of the protein.

    Amino acids are linked together through peptide bonds to form very long chains known as protein. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is known as its primary structure. Amino acids that are near to each other in the polypeptide chain can interact (referred to as local folding) to form either alpha-helix or beta-pleated sheet which are the secondary structures of protein. Also, those amino acids which are far from each other in the chain can also interact (referred to as distant folding) in order for the protein to assume its three-dimensional structure which is known as the tertiary structure. If a protein is composed of more than one unit, the subunits will join together to form the quaternary structure of the protein (each subunit has its own three-dimensional structure). Only proteins with 2 or more subunits have quaternary structure.

    2-Describe how the structure of an enzyme is essential to its functioning.

    The structure of the enzyme will dictate its function. There is a crevice / cleft within the enzyme structure known as ACTIVE SITE. This is where the substrate to be acted upon by the enzyme will be accommodated. Only the substrate whose structure is complementary to the structure of the active site of the enzyme can be accommodated for conversion to product. Otherwise, no catalysis will take place. Hence, the structure of the active site of the enzyme will enable it to discriminate between substrates, and allow catalysis only for specific type of reaction.

    3-What is the fundamental relationship between nucleic acids and protein synthesis?

    The nucleic acids namely DNA and RNA are important during protein synthesis. DNA is the repository of genetic information. It is transcribed to mRNA. The sequence of bases in mRNA dictate as to what type of protein will be synthesized. Three bases in mRNA constitute a codon. And one codon (except the stop codons) will code for a particular amino acid. Hence, the sequence of bases in DNA will dictate the sequence of bases in mRNA. In turn, the sequence of bases in mRNA will dictate the sequence of amino acids to be synthesized to form a protein.

    4-ATP is the most common storehouse for chemical energy in living systems. Describe in brief what happens when ATP is used for energy. Use the terms ATP, ADP and enzymes, and mitochondria in your description.

    Energy is usually liberated from the ATP molecule to do work in the cell by a reaction that removes one of the phosphate groups, leaving adenosine diphosphate (ADP).

    ATP → ADP + Pi (Pi is inorganic phosphate)

    When the ATP converts to ADP, the ATP is said to be spent. Then the ADP is usually immediately recycled in the mitochondria where it is recharged and comes out again as ATP.

    The reaction above lies far to the right. It is highly favored because it is very exothermic. Hence, biological reactions which are normally endergonic (energy-requiring) are usually coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP for them to occur.

    Much of the ATP of the cell is synthesized in the mitochondrioa. The mitochondrial processes that serve to generate ATP include the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain. Synthesis of ATP requires complex processes which involve the interplay of enzymes. On the other hand, coupling of ATP to allow an otherwise non-spontaneous reaction also requires the activity of enzymes. For example, the first reaction of gluconeogenesis is the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate:

    Pyruvate + CO2 + ATP → oxaloacetate + ADP

    This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme, pyruvate carboxylase. Hence, although coupling the reaction with hydrolysis of ATP allows the reaction to take place, catalysis by enzyme is also required.

    This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here!

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com December 24, 2021, 8:33 pm ad1c9bdddf>
    https://brainmass.com/chemistry/physical-chemistry/proteins-and-enzymes-288346

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