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Qualitative Observations of Organic Liquids

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1) What do understand by the terms a) Empirical Formula b) isomerism and what conclusions can you draw from the following observations about the chemical nature of the organic liquid D?

a) D (relative molecular mass 72 ) has the following persentage composition by mass: Carbon 66.7, hydrogen 11.1, oxygen 22.2
b) D gives an orange precipitate with 2,4 dinitrophenyhydrazine reagent
c) D reacts with phosphorous pentachloride but no fumes of hydrogen are evolved
d) D gives a pale yellow precipitate in warming with iodine and aqueous sodium hydroxide
e) Write the full structural formula for a compound that conforms to all the above data explaining how you arrive to that answer?

* D undergoes catalytic reduction with hydrogen to give a liquid E which, on dehydration with concentrated sulfuric acid give a colorless gas F. Ozonolysis of F gives a single organic product G with molecular formula C2H4O. Identify E, F, and G and write equations for above reactions.
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This in-depth solution contains step-by-step explanations and annotated diagrams to explain the concepts of empirical formula, isomerism, reaction mechanisms and also the qualitative observations of organic liquid D.

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