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Determination of valence electrons for the given electronic

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Determine how many valence electrons and if it is neutral

1s2, 2s2, 2p3

1s2, 2s2, 2p6

1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d6

AR 4s2, 3d5

Kr 5s2 4d10, 5p5

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Solution Preview

Valence electrons refer to the electrons in the outer most shell (including orbitals)

in first case, the outer shell refer to n =2 ...

Solution Summary

Determination of valence electrons for the given electronic configuration are determined.

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Rate Limiting Steps in Metal Oxide Epitaxy

On the bottom right-hand side of the third page of the pdf attached (page 2 of the article), the author states:

"Metal deposition rates are easily converted into the oxide growth rate under the assumption that the metal arrival rates are the rate limiting steps, which is true for growth under oxygen- rich conditions."

I am having trouble understanding this, so please answer the following questions to clarify it for me.

(a) What is meant by metal arrival rates being "rate limiting steps?" (Does this refer to oxidation?)

(b) Why is this true? (Why are metal arrival rates rate limiting steps?)

(c) What exactly is meant by an "oxygen-rich environment?" I haven't seen a technical definition of an "oxygen-rich environment" anywhere in the literature.

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