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Understanding the octet rule

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Elements in the first short period are limited by the octect rule whereas those in the higher period can expand their valence shells. Describe what this means, account for this phenomenon and give an example of each.

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The horizontal rows of the periodic chart are called periods or rows. There are seven periods, each of which begins with an atom having only one valence electron and ends with a complete outer shell structure of an inert gas.

The maximum number of valence electrons associated with an atom,

H and He may never have more than 2 valence ...

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