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    Acid Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria

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    1. Recognize the effect common ions exert on acid ionization and pH, and mechanisms by which solutions are buffered by ions.

    2. Examine acid base titration and the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and calculate the pH of a system at any stage of titration involving both strong and weak acid bases.

    3. Apply Le Chatelier's Principle to explain the effects of common ions and pH on solubility.

    4. Describe the effect of complex ion formation on solubility.

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    1) Buffer solution: A solution which resists change in pH upon addition of small amount of acid or base to it. They are of two types' acidic buffer and basic buffers.

    Acidic buffer is a mixture of weak acid and its salt
    Eg : acetic acid buffer

    It is a mixture of acetic acid and sodium acetate

    If a small amount of acid is added to this system according to Le Chatlier principle
    the system will adjust itself to nullify the effect made by us to the equilibrium
    If a small amount of HCl is added to this system

    HCl dissociate as H + and Cl- , H+ ions are added to this equilibrium (definition of acid = H+ ion donor)
    The concentration of H+ ions will increase in the system, the equilibrium ( Ist equation) will shift to the backward direction ie the formation of acetic acid will be preferred there by maintaining the pH constant

    Similarly if a small amount of base say NaOH is added (Base is OH- ion donor)

    It combines with acetic acid and eliminates a molecule of water and forms acetate ion which is again in the equilibrium (if the any ion in the equilibrium is formed, the system will adjust itself and keep the pH constant)

    2) Consider first a buffer solution containing a weak acid HA and its highly dissociated salt NaA. The hydrogen ion concentration of ...

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