# Fission and isotopes

1a.) You have 16 electrons, 16 protons, and 16 neutrons. You can combine them to make 8 Helium (He-4) atoms, 4 beryllium atoms (Be-8), 2 oxygen atoms (O-16), or one sulfur atom (S-32). What will you do to make the most stable product?

Info:

H-1 1.00782505 amu

He-4 4.0026033 amu

Be-8 8.0053052 amu

O-16 15.9949146 amu

S-32 31.972072 amu

(I want to say its sulfur because it weighs more but i'm not sure)

b.) calculate the energy released in the fission reaction

Be-8 ------ 2 He-4

( I got -1.28x10^(-6) MeV/Be) but i don't think i did it correctly)

2.) the molecule benzene has a molecular formula C6H6. If the relative abundance of Carbon-13 is 1% of that for carbon-12, what can be said about the ratio of the two parent ions corresponding to masses of 78 and 79 amu

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#### Solution Preview

Atomic nuclei are stable subject to the condition that they contain an adequate number of neutrons, in order to "dilute" the concentration of positive charges brought about by the protons. Nuclear stability thus depends on the atomic number (Z) and on the mass number (A). This determines the mass defect, which in turns determines the binding energy. The greater the binding energy per nucleon in the atom, the greater the nuclear stability.

Mass defect can be calculated by using the equation below. Dm = [ Z(mp + me) + (A-Z)mn ] - matom Binding energy can be calculated by ...

#### Solution Summary

Fission and isotopes are analyzed. The expert determines what makes the most stable product for an atom.

Nuclear radii, binding energy, isotope, uranium, fission, fusion

1. Compare the nuclear radii of the following nuclides: (2 1H), (60 27Co), (197 79Au), (129 94Pu).

2. Calculate the average binding energy per nucleon of (a)(23 11Na) Sodium, (b) (60 27Co) cobalt, and (c) (107 47Ag) Silver

3. The peak of the stability curve occurs at 56Fe, which is why iron is prominent in the spectrum of the Sun and stars. Show that 56Fe has a higher binding energy per nucleon than its neighbors 55Mn and 59C0.

4. The half-life of an isotope of phosphorus is 14 days. If a sample contains 3.0 x 10^16 such nuclei, determine its activity. Express your answer in curies.

5. Burning 1 metric ton(1 000 kg) of coal can yield an energy of 3.30 x 10^10 J. Fission of one nucleus of uranium-235 yields an average energy of approximately 208 MeV. What mass of uranium produces the same energy as 1 metric ton of coal?

6. Identify the missing nuclides (X) in the following decays: (a) X->(65 28Ni)+ y(b)(215 84Po)->X + (c)X->(55 26Fe) + e+ v.

7. A person whose mass is 75.0 kg is exposed to a whole-body dose of 25.0 rad. How many joules of energy are deposited in the person's body?

8. An x-ray technician works 5 days per week, 50 weeks per year. Assume that the technician takes an average of eight x-rays per day and receives a dose of 5.0 rem/yr as a result. (a) Estimate the dose in rem per x-ray taken. (b) How does this result compare with the amount of low-level background radiation the technician is exposed to?

9. Find the energy releaeed in the fission reaction (1 0n) + (235 92U) -> (88 38Sr) + (136 54Xe) + (121 0n).

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