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    Atomic Arrangements of Permanent Magnets

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    1. Name the three kinds of strength used to characterize materials AND give an example of a material that are strong in each of these modes.
    2. Explain how atoms can be arranged in such a way to create a permanent magnet.
    3. Identify 10 objects in your home that use semiconductors. What other kinds of materials with special electrical properties are found in all of these 10 objects?
    4. Research the status of magnetically levitated trains like the one now operating in China. How does it operate? How fast might it go?
    5. How does a nuclear reactor work?
    6. What types of researchers and scientists use carbon-14 radiometric dating? What type of researcher would use the other isotopes such as uranium-238?
    7. Use the periodic table to identify the element, its atomic number, mass number and electrical charge of the following:
    # Protons # Neutrons # Electrons Element Symbol Atomic Number Mass Electrical Charge
    1 0 1
    8 8 8
    17 18 18
    36 50 36
    8. What are the half-lives of the following common isotopes:

    a. Carbon-14:
    b. Uranium-238:
    c. Uranium-235:

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    Solution Preview

    1. The three types of strength used to characterize materials are tensile, compressive, and shear strength. Steel has a high tensile strength, concrete has a high compressive strength, and diamond has a high shear strength.

    2. In a permanent magnet, the atoms are arranged with each of their magnetic moments lined up, i.e. the electrons in each atom are orbiting about the same axis.

    3. Household objects that use semiconductors include computers, TVs, radios, microwave ovens, clocks, CD and DVD players, dishwashers, washers, and dryers. All these appliances also contain wiring with high electrical conductivity.

    4. The Shanghai Maglev train [1] is the only ...

    Solution Summary

    We solve a variety of problems concerning radiactivity, electricity, magnetism, and nuclear power.