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    Stratifiction (Layers) in a Body of Water

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    Draw a diagram showing the stratification in a body of water. Label the different layers and describe the type of chemistry (and species) that occurs at each level.

    I do not know how to draw the diagram and what layers to include?

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    SOLUTION This solution is FREE courtesy of BrainMass!

    I've attached a file for you depicting and describing two examples of water stratification (in a lake and in the ocean).

    The ocean absorbs atmospheric carbon dioxide into the mixed layer, a thin layer of water at the surface that is at nearly constant temperature, salinity, and dissolved gases. Turbulence, created by the wind maintains the mixed layer by agitating the water at, and just under the ocean's surface. Over a prolonged period, carbon dioxide slowly undergoes exchange with the deeper ocean at the base of the mixed layer as well as in regions near the poles where cold, salty water sinks to the ocean depths.

    The warmer the surface of the water gets, the more difficult it is for wind turbulence to mix the surface layers with the deeper water layers. This leads to stratification - Stratification effectively cuts down the amount of carbon the ocean can take up. Without the exchange of fresh carbonate-rich water from below, the surface water saturates with carbon dioxide and the stagnant water can support less phytoplankton, and carbon dioxide uptake from photosynthesis is reduced.
    In Summary, stratification occurs when tidal currents and waves are not strong enough to mix the water column. Anoxic and Hypoxic events can result as a consequence! (dissolved oxygen conditions - anoxic: near zero, hypoxic: below 2.0 mg L-1)

    Lakes/Still bodies of Water:
    This following schematic summarizes the layers in a non-flowing body of water (no currents as opposed to in oceans) and their characteristics quite nicely: (please see the attached file)

    Reference: Environmental Chemistry by S.Manahan

    Layer formation is a result of thermal stratification.

    Epilimnion: heated by solar energy and floats to the top due to lower density (compared to the hypolimnion). Photosynthesis can occur here and it contains a relatively higher concentration of oxygen. This layer is aerobic.

    In the Hypolimnion the action of Bacteria on organic material is likely to generate anaerobic conditions.

    The plane between these layers is called the Thermocline.

    When the Epilimnion is cooled (e.g. during the Autumn), thermal stratification is reduced and a more uniform mixing occurs - this is called an overturn.

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