1) Explain the concept of chemical kinetics and the various factors that influence reaction states.
4) Solve first-order rate problems.© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 24, 2018, 10:47 pm ad1c9bdddf
1) Chemical kinetics are a big part of the way in which chemists describe how solutions/compounds undergo reactions or change. Every time a solid, liquid or gas has a reaction with another solid, liquid, or gas we can use chemical kinetics to describe what is happening. Every reaction has a certain rate associated with it. Several factors influence these reaction rates: How long of a time period it takes for the reaction to proceed, the concentration of the compounds involved in the reaction, the temperature of the surroundings during the reaction, and the pressure and volume of the reaction (which is related to the temperature through the ideal gas law).
2) When they say experimental measurements they mean things we can physically measure in the lab. ...
This solution explains several concepts of chemical kinetics including reaction rates and laws, the rate constant, and the rate of concentrations.
Environmental Chemistry questions
A) Draw the Lewis structure of chlorine nitrate.
b) Write out the chemical equations showing how chlorine nitrate is formed in the stratosphere and for the reactions that convert it back to active chlorine compounds. Include reactions that occur in polar stratospheric clouds.
Calculate the rate constants at 220 K for Reactions 1 and 2.
Offer an explanation for why Reaction 2 has an activation energy of approximately zero.
Consider the net reaction in Question 2:
O + O3 O2 + O2
The standard enthalpies of formation of O and O3 are 249.2 and 142.7 kJ mol−1, respectively. Calculate the reaction enthalpy. Why does this reaction not proceed on its own, to any appreciable extent, in the stratosphere?
In particulate sampling, air is drawn through a filter, which collects the particulates. In one sampling, the initial weight of the filter was 3.347 g. The final filter weight was 3.762 g. If the average flow rate of air through the filter was 49 cubic feet per minute, and the sample was collected over 24 hours, what is the TSP concentration in μg/m3 for this sample?
(1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3)
Write out the steps for the atmospheric oxidation of ethane.
Write out the steps for the atmospheric oxidation of propylene.
The atmospheric residence time of methane in the atmosphere is 12 years. If global methane emissions total 600 Mt (megatonnes) per year, what is the steady state concentration of methane in the atmosphere in Mt??in ppm?
Note: The total mass of the atmosphere is 5.1 ?1018 kg, and the average molar mass is 29.0 g/mol.
A) In petroleum production, the term "solution gas" refers to gases that are dissolved in the petroleum reservoir because of the high pressure conditions underground, but become gaseous when the oil is brought to the surface. In 2007 in Alberta, 3.25 ?108 m3 of solution gas was flared (burned off) from crude oil and crude bitumen batteries. Assuming that the solution gas was 100% methane, how many moles of CO2 are produced from this flaring? What is the increase in global concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, in ppmv, resulting from this activity?
Note: The total mass of the atmosphere is 5.1 ?1018 kg, and the average molar mass is
b) In 2005, Alberta used 26 Mt (megatonnes) of coal to generate electricity. Assuming that 100% of the coal is converted to CO2, how many moles of CO2 are produced? What is the increase in global concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, in ppmv, caused by this activity?
At the Braidwood nuclear power plant in Illinois, between 1996 and 2000,millions of litres of radioactive cooling water were leaked on the site, and groundwater is now contaminated with high levels of tritium. Tritium is a beta emitter with a half life of 12.3 years. Monitoring wells on the site have found groundwater radioactivity of up to 282,000 pCi/L. The EPA drinking water standard is 20,000 pCi/L. If the contaminated groundwater remained static and there was no decrease in tritium levels resulting from groundwater flow, how many years would it take for the radioactivity to decrease from 282,000 pCi/L to 20,000 pCi/L?View Full Posting Details