I have a list of terms that needs to be defined in a Physical Chemistry course. With each definition I need an example for each term, as a description to it or so
transition state theory
integrated rate law
pseudo first order
preexponential factor (a)
zeroth order reaction
first order reaction
second order reaction
third order reaction
method of initial rates
stopped flow experiment
temperature jump experiment
steady state approximation
Michealis- Menten kinetics
KM Michealis constant
Maximum Turnover number
I have a list of terms that needs to be defined in a Physical Chemistery course. With each definition I need an example for each term, as a description to it or so
This theory is based on the idea that reactant particles must collide for a reaction to occur, but only a certain fraction of the total collisions have the energy to connect effectively and cause the reactants to transform into products.
transition state theory:
Transition state theory (TST) explains the reaction rates of elementary chemical reactions. The theory assumes a special type of chemical equilibrium (quasi-equilibrium) between reactants and activated transition state complexes. TST is used primarily to understand qualitatively how chemical reactions take place.
The proportionality constant between the rate of a reaction and the concentrations of the species that appear in the rate law, raised to the appropriate powers.
e.g. for the reaction A + B C, rate = k[A][B] where [A] and [B] are the concentrations of reactants and k is the rate constant.
The relationship between the rate a reaction proceeds and its temperature is determined by the Arrhenius Equation. At higher temperatures, the probability that two molecules will collide is higher. This higher collision rate results in a higher kinetic energy, which has an effect on the activation energy of the reaction. The activation energy is the amount of energy required to ensure that a reaction happens.
where A is a contant, Ea is the activation energy, R is the gas constant and T is the temperature.
integrated rate law:
Rate laws like d[A]/dt = -k[A] (which gives you the change in concentration of reactant A over a given time 't') give instantaneous concentration changes. To find the change in concentration over time, these instantaneous changes must be integrated over the desired time interval.
An expression for the rate of reaction in terms of concentrations of particular chemical species. E.g. rate = k[A][B] where [A] and [B] are the concentrations of reactants and k is the rate constant.
this the energy that must be overcome in order for a chemical reaction to occur.
pseudo first order:
Measuring a second order reaction rate can be tricky as the concentrations of the two reactants must be followed simultaneously. A common solution for that problem is the pseudo first order approximation
If either [A] or [B] remain constant as the reaction proceeds, then the reaction can be considered pseudo first order because in fact it only depends on the concentration of one reactant. This is generally achieved by using one reagent in large excess (eg. Large excess of [B] below). If for example [B] remains constant then:
preexponential factor (a):
A key parameter in the Arrhenius equation. It is an empirical relationship between temperature and rate ...
Collision theory and rate constants are determined.