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Management Decision

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Research has shown that leadership is an observable, learnable set of practices. It is a process ordinary people use when they're bringing forth the best from themselves and others. Liberate the leader in everyone, and extraordinary things happen. Good leadership is an understandable and universal process," (Clemmer, Kouzes and Posner, 2006).

In many cases, we confuse a leader's natural charisma or ability to influence others with inborn traits. This confusion allows people to elect a leader based on popularity instead of skill or charismatic attributes which can be problematic. Leadership in my opinion is a skill that can be learned and acquired from anyone; the true essence of leadership lies within the confines of how a leader uses his/her new found power of influence. As a result of leadership being a learned skill, the capacity to learn and apply life's lessons is key to becoming and remaining a successful leader. There are many examples of leaders who have either failed to learn or failed to apply what they have learned and who have thus failed as a leader (Connelly and Rudnick, 2007).

In today's dynamic world, where things are changing rapidly, those who can internalize the lessons around them, who can envision the importance of those insights on their enterprise, and who can motivate and influence others to act upon those insights will have a better chance of success (Connelly et al, 2007).

Situational Leadership

According to (Bass & Avolio, 2001), situational leadership is leadership style among executives in multinational companies. As society becomes increasingly global, leaders must have situational leadership skills to remain competitive and achieve the mission. Global organizations can greatly benefit when leaders use the situational style. The situational style is just one of many styles, but it has advantages that other styles do not have. In a global market, situational leadership is necessary for success. 21st century leaders may choose from many leadership styles, including transformational (Bass & Avolio, 2001), situational and servant leadership. Although, all leadership styles can be effective, situational leadership is the most favored style in multinational organizations. According to Bass, situational leaders are those who can adapt their behaviors to changing circumstances. For example, a situational leader might provide intensive coaching and supervision to unify two groups of employees after a merger. However, as the team becomes unified, the leader offers less supervision and requires the employees to be more self-sufficient. The results did not support Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) predictions that an appropriate match between leadership style and subordinate readiness results in higher levels of subordinate job satisfaction and performance and lower levels of job stress and intention to leave. (Jui-Chen, 2005.) However, the results did partially support (SLT) in that, the higher the leader's leadership score, the more effective is the leader's influence. This adaptive leadership style can be especially beneficial in global companies as leaders modify their behaviors to accommodate culturally and geographically diverse workforces (Ming-Lee, 2008).

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Research has shown that leadership is an observable, learnable set of practices. It is a process ordinary people use when they're bringing forth the best from themselves and others. Liberate the leader in everyone, and extraordinary things happen. Good leadership is an understandable and universal process," (Clemmer, Kouzes and Posner, 2006).

In many cases, we confuse a leader's natural charisma or ability to influence others with inborn traits. This confusion allows people to elect a leader based on popularity instead of skill or charismatic attributes which can be problematic. Leadership in my opinion is a skill that can be learned and acquired from anyone; the true essence of leadership lies within the confines of how a leader uses his/her new found power of influence. As a result of leadership being a learned skill, the capacity to learn and apply life's lessons is key to becoming and remaining a successful leader. There are many examples of leaders who have either failed to learn or failed to apply what they have learned and who have thus failed as a leader (Connelly and Rudnick, 2007).

In today's dynamic world, where things are changing rapidly, those who can internalize the lessons around them, who can envision the importance of those insights on their enterprise, and who can motivate and influence others to act upon those insights will have a better chance of success (Connelly et al, 2007).

Situational Leadership

According to (Bass & Avolio, 2001), situational leadership is leadership style among executives in multinational companies. As society becomes increasingly global, leaders must have situational leadership skills to remain competitive and achieve the mission. Global organizations can greatly benefit when leaders use the situational style. The situational style is just one of many styles, but it has advantages that other styles do not have. In a global market, situational leadership is necessary for success. 21st century leaders may choose from many leadership styles, including transformational (Bass & Avolio, 2001), situational and servant leadership. Although, all leadership styles can be effective, situational leadership is the most favored style in multinational organizations. According to Bass, situational leaders are those who can adapt their behaviors to changing circumstances. For example, a situational leader might provide intensive coaching and supervision to unify two groups of employees after a merger. However, as the team becomes unified, the leader offers less supervision and requires the employees to be more self-sufficient. The results did not support Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) predictions that an appropriate match between leadership style and subordinate readiness results in higher levels of subordinate job satisfaction and performance and lower levels of job stress and ...

Solution Summary

Research has shown that leadership is an observable, learnable set of practices. It is a process ordinary people use when they're bringing forth the best from themselves and others. Liberate the leader in everyone, and extraordinary things happen. Good leadership is an understandable and universal process," (Clemmer, Kouzes and Posner, 2006).

In many cases, we confuse a leader's natural charisma or ability to influence others with inborn traits. This confusion allows people to elect a leader based on popularity instead of skill or charismatic attributes which can be problematic. Leadership in my opinion is a skill that can be learned and acquired from anyone; the true essence of leadership lies within the confines of how a leader uses his/her new found power of influence. As a result of leadership being a learned skill, the capacity to learn and apply life's lessons is key to becoming and remaining a successful leader. There are many examples of leaders who have either failed to learn or failed to apply what they have learned and who have thus failed as a leader (Connelly and Rudnick, 2007).

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Analyze political, social, ethical and legal differences and their impact on management decision making

Antitrust laws were essentially created to stop businesses that got too large from blocking competition and abusing their power. Mergers and monopolies can limit the choices offered to consumers because smaller businesses are not usually able to compete. Although free and open competition ensures lower prices and new and better products, it has the potential to significantly limit market diversity.

Look at the 2 examples below of how mergers and acquisitions have affected the way in which companies do business.
Read each of the 2 examples below. Decide which one you would like to use for your project and answer the following questions.

- Identify the two firms with similar problems from different countries
- Conduct a comparative analysis of the firms
- Analyze political, social, ethical and legal differences and their impact on management decision making
- Provide substantive conclusion and recommendations

Example 1
Federal antitrust enforcers are investigating whether a multinational pharmaceutical company has attempted to minimize the impact of generic competition to one of its most profitable prescription drugs. This anti-depressant drug is the company's best seller, with sales last year of $2.11 billion, representing a 22% increase from the year before.

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is conducting an investigation to determine whether the company has engaged in activities to prevent generic alternatives to the prescription drug from entering the market. Specifically, the FTC is challenging a practice among brand-name and generic-drug manufacturers to agree to delay the introduction of the lower priced generic drugs to the market.

Answer the following questions:
- Why would the drug maker want to stymie generic competition? Explain.
- What types of legal barriers to market entry exist?
- What are the possible ethical dilemmas present in this example?

Example 2
The boards of 2 major telecommunications companies recently agreed to a $16 billion-dollar merger that would create the world's largest telecommunications company in the world. Although some agree that the synergy between these companies could be dynamic, others feel consumers could ultimately pay the price for the merger depending on which company becomes dominant in the various service areas.

Answer the following questions:
- Why do you think consumer advocates have expressed concern over such merger possibilities?
- Other than pricing, what are some pitfalls that consumers might have to deal with when 2 major companies merge?
- What are the possible ethical dilemmas present in this example?

PART B

Many organizations have established policies to remedy discrimination when hiring women and minorities. Discuss whether you feel that affirmative action programs, reverse discrimination, and criteria of comparable worth are appropriate forms of remedy. Using the textbook, course materials, and Web resources, research affirmative action, reverse discrimination, and comparable worth and answer the following questions:
- Do you feel that these concepts are appropriate forms of remedy in the workplace? Explain.
- What else do you think could be done to eliminate discrimination in the workplace?

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