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Emotional Labor

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A recent study reported that instructors at colleges and universities are frequently required to engage in emotional labor. Identify the situations in which emotional labor is required for this job. In your opinion, is emotional labor more troublesome for college instructors or for telephone operators working at an emergency service? Be sure cite your sources
400 words. 4 credits

Four drive theory is conceptually different from the Maslow's needs hierarchy (as well as ERG theory) in several ways. Describe these differences. At the same time, needs are based on drives, so the four drives should parallel the seven needs that Maslow identified (Give in the hierarchy and two additional needs). Map Maslow's needs onto the four drives in fourdrive theory.
400 words. 4 credits

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A recent study reported that instructors at colleges and universities are frequently required to engage in emotional labor. Identify the situations in which emotional labor is required for this job. In your opinion, is emotional labor more troublesome for college instructors or for telephone operators working at an emergency service? Be sure to cite your sources.
400 words. 4 credits

According to Humphrey, et. al, "Emotional labor is the display of expected emotions by service agents during service encounters. It is performed through surface acting, deep acting, or the expression of genuine emotion." Emotional labor may facilitate better self-expression and task effectiveness but it may also stimulate pressure on the person's identity with the service role. (Humphrey, et. al., 1993)
In the case of instructors or professors in educational institutions, emotional labor is manifested in their teaching and service roles. However, emotional labor is generally not recognized as valued skills and there are no incentives and rewards for it. Some situations in which instructors practice emotional labor in the workplace are going to be discussed in this paper. Teachers, especially the female, spend more time nurturing and caring for their students through listening to them as they share their problems and try to provide advice to solve the things that concern them most. Sometimes they provide service information that the students need. They also spend countless hours working closely with them and do numerous ways to show these students that they care for them. These acts of love help the students sustain and keep them in the college system. Some students in college are working while studying. There will be times that they will miss deadlines to submit certain requirements and they go to the instructor and request for an extension and a reconsideration. Sometimes the instructor understands and in effect, makes the ...

Solution Summary

Emotional labor, four-drive theory with Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. References are included.

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There were actually 4 questions and I have already answered the last two, I just need help with the two that I have included.
Thank you.



Telephone customer-service representatives have a tough time these days. With automated telephone systems that
create a labyrinth for customers, result in long hold times, and make it difficult for them to speak to an actual human
being, a customer's frustration often settles in before the representative has had time to say "hello." Says Donna Earl, an owner of a customer-service consulting firm in San Francisco, "By the time you get to the person you need to talk to, you're mad."

Erin Calabrese knows all too well just how mad customers can get. A customer-service representative at a financial services company, she still vividly recalls one of her worst experiences-with a customer named Jane. Jane called Calabrese over some charges on her credit card and began "ranting and raving." "Your #%#% company, who do you think you are?" yelled Jane. Though Calabrese tried to console the irate customer by offering a refund, Jane only called Calabrese an "idiot." The heated conversation continued for almost 10 minutes before Calabrese, shaking,
handed the phone to her supervisor and left her desk.

Sometimes customers can be downright racist. One customer-service representative finally quit her job at a New Jersey company because she constantly heard racial remarks from customers after, she contends, they heard her Spanish accent. "By the time you leave, your head is spinning with all the complaints," she said.

Unfortunately, these employees have little choice but to take the abuse. Many companies require customer service
employees to keep positive emotions at all times to maintain satisfied customers. But the result could be an emotional nightmare that doesn't necessarily end once the calls stop. Calabrese stated that she would frequently
take her negative emotions home. The day after she received the abusive call from Jane, Calabrese went home and started a fight with her roommate. It was "an all-out battle," recalls Calabrese, "I just blew up." The former customer-service representative who worked in New Jersey also recalls the effects of the abusive calls on her family. "My children would say, 'Mom, stop talking about your work. You're home.' My husband would say the same thing," she said.

Emma Parsons, who quit her job as a customer-service representative for the travel industry, was frustrated by the
inability to do anything about abusive customers and the mood they'd put her in. "Sometimes you'd finish a call and
you'd want to smash somebody's face. I had no escape, no way of releasing." She said that if she did retaliate toward an abusive customer, her boss would punish her.

Some companies train their representatives to defuse a customer's anger and to avoid taking abuse personally, but the effort isn't enough. Liz Aherarn of Radclyffe Group, a consulting firm in Lincoln Park, New Jersey, says customer-service employees who work the phones are absent more frequently, are more prone to illness, and are more likely to make stress-related disability claims than other employees. Thus, it is apparent that in the world of customer service, particularly when interactions take place over the phone, emotions can run high, and the effects can be damaging. Although the adage "the customer comes first" has been heard by many, companies should empower employees to decide when it is appropriate to put the customer second. Otherwise, employees are forced to deal with abusive customers, the effects of which can be detrimental to both the individual and the company.

1. From an emotional labor perspective, how does dealing with an abusive customer lead to stress and burnout?

2. If you were a recruiter for a customer-service call center, what personality types would you prefer to hire and why? In other words, what individual differences are likely to affect whether an employee can handle customer abuse on a day-to-day basis?

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