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# Analyzing Outputs with the Nadler-Tushman Model

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Outputs of Skype. As I indicated before, this is a follow-up using the Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model.

Need you to analyze how Skype, has been doing in terms of its performance, how it stacks up against its goals. And we need to do this at three levels: the overall organizational level, the group level, and the individual level.

The Congruence Model really explains this very well.

I wish to know how congruent the outputs are across the three levels. So given your analysis of performance at each of the three levels, are the interactions of these outputs congruent - highly, somewhat, or very little? I need you to make this determination and support it with a good logical argument using the information that you obtain about Skype's goals and performance.

Nadler, D.A. & Tushman, M.L. (1980) A Model for Diagnosing Organizational Behavior. Organizational Dynamics, 9 (2), 35-51.

Use the Nadler-Tushman Congruence Module to analyze Skype's outputs. Start with the Organizational Level. Identify the Outputs - what does it produce and sell? What are its goals? How has it been performing? Then go the group level. What are some groups that Skype identifies, and the goals and performance of these groups? Finally, discuss the Individual level. Here you will find it difficult to get much detailed information, so identify five to seven key jobs and their outputs. How can the performance of these jobs be measured? Finally determine the congruence of the outputs and make a strong argument for your case.

Key Points:

In order to make your case you need to identify the outputs of the organization at each of three levels. Also identify the goals that it has set and its current performance. Include the following:
- Outputs at the organizational level are the products and/or services that it provides to its customers. What are these and how does the company categorize them? How does it measure its organizational performance (e.g., sales, net profit, return on sales, return on assets, market share, customer satisfaction, etc.) Provide some specific performance data.
- What are some ways the company identifies groups? For example, are there geographic groups (or divisions), functional groups, etc. What are the outputs of these groups? How does it (or how might it) measure performance of these groups?
- What are some of the key individual functions, and what are their outputs? How do these outputs contribute to the group outputs? How do they measure individual performance?
- Evaluate how the outputs at the different levels interact with each other. Determine if you think the congruence of the outputs is high, medium, or low. Then Make a strong Case. It is very important that you support your position with evidence and information that you have discussed earlier in the report.

##### Solution Summary

The response analyses Skype's outputs using the Nadler-Tushman congruence model in essay-form with 1411 words and 6 references.

##### Solution Preview

//In this paper, we will discuss congruence model in reference to software company Skype which primarily deals with video chat and communication. Firstly, this paper will give a brief introduction of the company and later on its goals and objectives. Various organizational outputs, i.e. products and services of the company will be discussed. The segregation of the outputs at the organizational level is also discussed. Various purposes served by this application will also be discussed, as it will help in analyzing the company's overall congruency module//.

Company Profile

Skype is an IT application, which offers a common platform to communicate worldwide. It has actually broken the barriers of gaps and offered the convenience of real time communication. By using Skype, a person can chat with a person who is million kilometers away from him and that too without any cost. The main aim of this organization is to fabricate the barriers of distance and provide world a podium to communicate with voice on the web. Moreover, it also aims to provide either free communication or communication at least cost.

Functions and Identification of Output at Organizational Level

At the organizational level, Skype offers a wide range of products and services to its users like free online video chat, phone calls, instant messaging, transfer of vital documents, video conferencing, voice mails, call forwarding, etc. All these services make Skype popular among young scholars, as they can discuss their problems with professors, business professionals, and associate with their business deals via Skype.

The company categorizes its products on the basis of users, i.e. the purpose of the usage like, some users use Skype for casual communication and some use it for business purpose. For this, customized services are designed for them. Besides this, company also segregates the users on the basis of mode of usage services like some users are paid users for premium services and others are non paid users, which avails the free services of the Skype.

//In the above section, we have discussed the company's organizational outputs in this section of the paper evaluation of the performance is discussed. It talks about the financial evaluation of the company which is considered as the basic evaluation criteria for every company. The reader will be able to figure out different performance evaluation criteria by studying this part of the paper. This will also discuss the ...

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• MBA (IP), International Center for Internationa Business
• BBA, University of Rajasthan
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