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Research, Proposals, and Literature Reviews

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For the first part of this assignment, compare and contrast the theoretical and practical differences between "formal research" and "business proposals". What are some commonalities? What are some differences? What are the capabilities of one in contrast with the capabilities of the other? "The Disconnect Between the Science and the Practice of Management" for additional assistance on the subject.

For this second part, search one of the five 'testable statements' (hypothesis) listed below and conduct a survey of the literature using one of the article collections (databases) in the Library. Based upon the elements of how to construct a literature review suggested in the Sekaran & Bougie textbook and additional sources, prepare an actual Literature Review (Step 2 of the Sekaran & Bougie process) that address the most relevant findings reported in research articles which address, support, or refute your chosen hypothesis. Pick one of the following hypotheses to compose your Literature Review:

This is the hypothesis I choose and have already started doing research on.
H5: What are the effects of human resources outsourcing on leadership performance and employee commitment?

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1. There are theoretical and practical differences between "formal research" and "business proposals". From the theoretical perspective formal research gives basic information and figures relating to a field of business or industry. For example, formal research may give reasons for the current improvement in the economy or of the US automobile industry. On the other hand a business proposal may indicate the segments that are attractive to a particular business, outline the steps that the business should take, and the expected profits from such a move. For example, a business proposal may point out the segments that are attractive to Ford Motor Company and provide the benefits that the company will get by entering that segment.
The practical differences between formal research and business research are that formal research has the purpose of finding information that can help businesses make better decisions. In practice business proposals suggest specific business steps to be taken that will help the business grow or be more profitable. For example, a business proposal is about setting up a manufacturing plant in China. This proposal will contain steps that businesses should take to set up operations in China and the ways in which the company will benefit from this proposal. The proposal usually contains a cost benefit analysis and/or a break-even analysis. Formal research proposals have a theoretical perspective; business proposals are practical and emphasize the financial benefits to the firm. The commonalities between formal research and business proposals are that both have well defined goals. Both use data and information to support their position. Further, both formal research and business proposals have recommendations for business managers. For example, a formal research may have the goal of informing managers in general about the leadership role of human resource development. Similarly, a business proposal may have the goal of informing managers of a specific company about the attractiveness of a segment that should be exploited by introducing a new product, entering a new market, or setting up a plant in a new location.
The differences between formal research and business proposals are that formal research is aimed at managers in general. A business proposal is targeted at a particular company or a group of managers. For example, a formal research may recommend methods of marketing during economic downturn. On the other hand a business proposal may suggest the introduction of five new products by Sears that will help increase its sales during economic downturn. The capabilities of formal research are related to academic research and following rigorous methodology. The business proposals writers have the ability to identify business opportunities where the related company can make profitable investment.
Let us examine this issue from the perspective of Disconnect between the Science and the Practice of Management. There is a huge disconnect between the needs of Management Science and Practice ...

Solution Summary

The answer to this problem explains the dilemma of human resource outsourcing. The references related to the answer are also included.

See Also This Related BrainMass Solution

Approach to developing a Research Proposal

Too often, individuals will jump right into developing a research proposal with little to no thought of planning. That approach does not maximize the potential of the research to be usable and of value to the overall body of knowledge in the particular discipline or profession.

To develop a research proposal, it is imperative to understand the following critical concepts or components such as the following:

? Research hypothesis
? Research problem statement
? Null hypothesis
? Research variables
? Literature review
? Database versus search engine
? Random sampling
? Data collection
? Quantitative research
? Reliability

For this assignment, you are to prepare a report regarding research proposals in which you answer the following questions:

1. What is a research hypothesis, and how does it differ from the research question?
2. What should be included in the research problem statement?
3. Define a null hypothesis. When would it be used?
4. What are the criteria for establishing research variables?
5. What is the purpose of the literature review in the research proposal?
6. What is a database, and how does it differ from a search engine?
7. What is random sampling, and why is it considered a stronger sampling method than nonrandomized sampling?
8. What are the major methods used for data collection in research?
9. What are the main steps to a research proposal in a quantitative research study?
10. Define reliability. What are 3 aspects of reliability in quantitative research?

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