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Cost Focus, Quality Focus, and Customization Focus

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Cost Focus:
? Early concepts (1776-1880)
- Labor specialization (Smith)
- Standardized parts (Whitney)
? Scientific Management Era (1880-1910)
- Gantt Charts for systematic scheduling (Gantt)
- Motion & Time Studies (Gilbreth)
- Process Analysis (Taylor )
- Queuing theory (Erlang)
? Mass Production Era (1910-1980)
- Moving Assembly Line (Ford)
- Statistical Sampling (Shewhart)
- Economic Order Quantity (Harris)
- Linear Programming (Dantzig)
- Material Requirements Planning

Quality Focus:
? Lean Production Era (1980-1995)
- Just-In-Time (JIT)
- Kanbans
- Total Quality Management (TQM)
- Empowerment
- Baldrige Award
- Computer Aided Design (CAD)
- Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)

Customization Focus:
? Mass Customization Era (1995-2015)
- Globalization
- Internet
- Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
- Supply Chain Management (SCM)
- E-commerce
- International Quality Standards
- Finite Scheduling
- Mass customization
- Build - to - order
- Sustainability

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Solution Summary

The cost focus, quality focus and customization focus is examined. Gantt charts for systematic scheduling is analyzed.

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I outlined each of the terms and I updated as many of the who's as possible. I have attached the information here.

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Cost Focus
• Early concepts (1776-1880)
- Labor specialization (Smith)
Plato originally wrote about Labor Specialization in his work, Republic. He considered each individual would be responsible for a specific job, good, or service within an organization or government, specializing in that job, good, or service.
- Standardized parts (Whitney)
These are parts that are identical and interchangeable. The first use was probably by the Chinese printer, Bi Sheng, and some militaries were using standardized weapons in the 1700's. However, in the Western world, we credit this to Eli Whitney for use in weapons.
• Scientific Management Era (1880-1910)
- Gantt Charts for systematic scheduling (Gantt)
Invented by Henry Gantt, these bar charts are used in projects to show progress, outline the project, show start and finish information, and other necessary parts of a project. These might include dependency, summaries, and budget and work breakdowns.
- Motion & Time Studies (Gilbreth)
The work of Frederick W. Taylor and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth combined to create a management system of time and work methods. The combined work refined the techniques for use in methods of improving or upgrading work systems. The methods can be used in a wide array of industries including manufacturing, services, schools and hospitals, and financial institutions.
- Process Analysis (Taylor )
This is the different functions and procedures that move inputs into outputs. It is also known as the business process. The process is logical and connected using company resources to achieve their measurable results. The process is in written form so others can see the changes and measure the results.
- Queuing theory (Erlang)
This is the mathematical study of waiting lines. Its uses making business decisions for services and the resources needed to provide service for customers. It has been used on business, healthcare, telecommunications, and transportations.
• Mass Production Era (1910-1980)
- Moving Assembly Line (Ford)
The movement of parts through a system in a specific manner that creates the finished product faster and with less labor costs. It uses the division of labor theory to have people work along the line on a specific job, becoming specialized. It is a manufacturing process.
- Statistical Sampling (Shewhart)
Statistical sampling is the choice of a subset of individuals or items from the statistical population to estimate the quality of the overall product or the ...

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