See attached file.
An introduction to management science Ch14 Multicriteria Decisions
A decision with more than one objective
cannot have an optimal solution.
requires the decision maker to place the objectives in some order of importance.
depends on the probability of satisfying each objective.
should be decomposed into a separate model for each objective.
Deviation variables that occur in the objective function indicate
only the areas that are of concern.
the difference between all actual and target values.
The goal programming problem with the objective function min P1(d1+) +P2(d2) is initially solved by the computer and the objective function value is 0. What constraint should be added for the second problem?
d1+ = 0
d1+ + d2 = 0
d1+ + d2 = 0
d1+  0
Pair-wise comparisons are used to
compare criteria in terms of the overall goal.
compare choices on each criterion.
both a and b are true.
neither a nor b is true.
Goal programming with preemptive priorities never permits trade-offs between
goals with the same priority level and the same weights.
goals with different priority levels.
goals with the same priority level and different weights.
Computing the consistency ratio for a criterion's pair-wise comparison matrix is the next step after
developing the criterion's pair-wise comparison matrix.
converting the criterion's pair-wise comparison matrix to a normalized matrix.
developing the criterion's priority vector.
developing the overall priority vector.
Goal equations consist of a function that defines goal achievement and deviation variables that measure the distance from the target.
If a problem has multiple goals at different priority levels, then usually they can all be achieved.
One limitation of a scoring model is that it uses arbitrary weights that do not necessarily reflect the preferences of the individual decision maker.
A problem involving only one priority level is not considered a goal programming problem.
Variables that indicate the distance a target is from the level achieved are called
Preemptive priorities in goal programming
show the target values for the problem.
prevent sacrifice of a goal to satisfy a lower level one.
force the problem to be a standard linear program.
limit deviations to d only.
The variable d- measures
the amount over the target and is similar to a slack.
the amount under the target and is similar to a slack.
the amount over the target and is similar to a surplus.
the amount under the target and is similar to a surplus.
The constraint 5x1 + 3x2 <= 150 is modified to become a goal equation, and priority one is to avoid overutilization. Which of the following is appropriate?
Min P1d1; 5x1 + 3x2 + d1  d1+ = 150
Min P1d1+; 5x1 + 3x2 + d1  d1+ = 150
Min P1d1+; 5x1 + 3x2 + d1+ = 150
Min P1d1+; 5x1 + 3x2  d1+ = 150
A required step in the analytic hierarchy process is to determine
the goals to be satisfied.
the expected value of the criteria.
the relative importance of a set of features based on a criterion.
how many hierarchies to use.
The overall priorities for decision alternatives
are the sum of the products of the criterion priority times the priority of the decision alternative with respect to that criterion.
sum to 1.
indicate what choice is preferred, but do not force that choice to be made.
each of the above is true.
The steps of the scoring model include all of the following EXCEPT:
list the decision-making criteria and assign a weight to each.
develop a pair-wise comparison matrix for each criterion.
rate how well each decision alternative satisfies each criterion.
compute the total score for each decision alternative.
Inconsistency in the pair-wise judgments is indicated by a consistency ratio that is
less than zero
greater than 0.10
greater than 0.50
greater than 1.00
When using a linear programming approach to solving a goal programming problem, a linear program must be solved for each
pair of deviation variables.
Objectives in multicriteria problems seldom conflict.
Target values will never be met precisely in a goal programming problem.
There can only be one goal at each priority level.
To solve a goal programming problem with preemptive priorities, successive linear programming programs, with an adjustment to the objective function and an additional constraint, must be solved.
For a scoring model, the decision maker evaluates each decision alternative using equally weighted criteria.
If airline A is moderately preferred to airline B, at a value of 3, then airline B is compared to airline A at a value of 3.
An item's priority reveals how it compares to its competitors on a specific criterion.
The priority matrix shows the priority for each item on each criterion.
A consistency ratio greater than 0.10 indicates inconsistency in the pair-wise comparisons.
Calculating the priority of each criterion in terms of its contribution to the overall goal is known as developing the hierarchy.
The goal programming approach can be used when an analyst is confronted with an infeasible solution to an ordinary linear program.
3. b http://www.scribd.com/doc/41259123/Goal-Programming
5. b ...
Multicriteria decision objectives are examined.