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Maslow's Motivational Theory and the B-needs

You may be interested to know that originally, Maslow had two extra levels in his hierarchy - a need for aesthetics and a need for knowledge.

I would like to call on your professional analysis in research on the presumed two extra levels. As is discussed above.

1) Please validate this ideology as fact or fiction.
2) If it was fact please provide reference of the fact as well provide information as why Maslow dropped them from his list.

Thank you.

Solution Preview

Hi,

Good questions!

Basically, based on my research, it is not Maslow that dropped the two lower level growth needs; rather, those who apply the model to work motivation often ignore these growth needs. Initially, Maslow's model included the 5 levels of human needs, which many continue to use in application. It could be that there is little empirical evidence (if any) that have tested the three growth needs (cognitive, aesthetic and self-actualization). Or, it could be that it is easier to apply the four lower needs, whereas the B-needs or growth needs are more self-directed. A person can easily give you shelter or food to meet your security need, for example, but what could that person give you to self-actualize or self-transcend? Perhaps these b-needs are too abstract and difficult to define, and indeed, they lack validation.

Let's expand on these ideas.

RESPONSE:

An interesting quote from Maslow:

Human life will never be understood unless its highest aspirations are taken into account. Growth, self-actualization, the striving toward health, the quest for identity and autonomy, the yearning for excellence (and other ways of phrasing the striving "upward") must by now be accepted beyond question as a widespread and perhaps universal human tendency.

And yet there are also other regressive, fearful, self-diminishing tendencies as well, and it is very easy to forget them in our intoxication with "personal growth," especially for inexperienced youngsters. .... We must appreciate that many people choose the worse rather than the better, that growth is often a painful process.... (Abraham Maslow, Motivation and Personality).

1. I would like to call on your professional analysis in research on the presumed two extra levels. As is discussed below:

1)Please validate this ideology as fact or fiction.
2)If it was fact please provide reference of the fact as well provide information as why Maslow drop them from his list.

The ideology is fact, not fiction.

For example, based on my research, Maslow initially had the four D-needs and one growth need (transcendence) in his Hierarchy of Needs (see chart attached).

However, as Maslow's theory evolved, he later added two lower growth needs (cognitive and aesthetic) and one higher: (self-transcendence). According to his theory, once the powerful needs for food, security, love and self-esteem are satisfied, a deep desire for creative expression (need for knowledge and ascetic needs) and self-actualization rises to the surface. For instance, according to Maslow, it is difficult to speak about self-actualization if a person fears for her safety or suffers from hunger (http://pursuit-of-happiness.org/projects.aspx).

According to Maslow, an individual is ready ...

Solution Summary

This solution explains the growth needs (also called B-needs) of Maslow;s motivational theory e.g. cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualization and self-transcendence. It further explains the two lower growth needs (e.g. cognitive and aesthetic). Supplemented with an informative chart on Maslow's growth needs.

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