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Describe the phenomenon of social loafing and three main causes of free riding. Identify strategies which can lessen the effect of social loafing.

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First of all, social loafing often correlates with lack of focus on one's tasks or objectives or exhibiting a sense of procrastination. Research also formally defines it linked to "The effect known as Ringelmann effect states that as group size increases, individual behavior may be less productive. If this decrease in productivity in groups is attributed to a decrement in individual motivation, it is called social loafing" (Czyz, Szmajke, Kruger, & Kübler, 2016, p. 754). In sum, this phenomenon has historical roots by researchers such as Ingham et al. (1974) as well as Latane, Williams, and Harkins (1979), who then repeated "Ringelmann's experiments using sophisticated rope-pulling equipment that max-imized experimental control. They found that a substantial decrement in performance in teams may be partly attributed to the reduced individual effort and not to coordination loss" (p. 755). When we show a decrease in our performance productivity, potential, or even motivational levels when of working collectively, for example, social loafing is often the result. It is again suggested how social loafing is defined as a "decrease in individual effort when performing in groups as compared to ...

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This solution provides scholarly ideas in 600 words of notes and APA references to briefly describe the phenomenon of social loafing and three main causes of free riding. It further identifies strategies which can lessen the effect of social loafing.

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