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    Protozoan Movement and Cellular and Humoral Immunity

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    1. Protozoans are grouped through their means of locomotion; describe the three different types of locomotion.
    2. Compare and contrast humoral and cellular immunity.

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    - Protozoan Movement

    1. Amoeboid (or Psuedopoidal)
    2. Flagellar
    3. Ciliar

    1. Pseudopodial locomotion occurs by the extension of a part of the microbe that anchors itself and then pulls the remainder of the microbe forward. Internally, the movement is quite complex. The protozoan's cytoplasm flows through the pseudopods to accomplish this movement. The actual molecular basis of the mechanism is not yet fully characterized. Even the mechanics of pseudopodial formation are not completely understood.

    2. A rapid and erratic movement that uses one or two flagella. Flagellar movement occurs as either planar waves, oarlike beating, or three-dimensional waves. All three of these forms of flagellar movement consist of contraction waves that pass from either the base to the tip of the flagellum or in the reverse direction to move the protozoan backwards or forwards. Planar waves are similar to a sinusoid (S-shaped) wave form and results in a backwards movement. ...

    Solution Summary

    The solution addresses two separate questions. The first question asks to describe three types of locomotion in protozoans. Three peer-reviewed references are provided that were used to come up with the answer. As well, these articles are recommended for further reading on the subject of protozoan movement.

    The second question deals with the two types of immunity used by an organism (like humans) to defend against foreign invaders. The solution answers the question and provides a link to another peer-reviewed paper on the subject. The paper is a classic paper that is useful in helping to understand this topic.