1. If urine is normally sterile within the urinary bladder, explain two ways in which urine may become contaminated when obtaining a urine culture.
2. Explain three different ways in which antibodies react with antigens that they are specific to that aid in preventing colonization or infection in the host.
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Microbiology: Urine Sample
1. Although urine is normally sterile within the urinary bladder; there are a number of ways in which urine may become contaminated when obtaining a urine culture:
Normal urine is sterile: practically free of bacteria and other organisms, yeast and so on. As such, this would be a urine sample from a healthy bladder (a urine sample taken directly from a healthy person's bladder that doesn't have a urinary tract infection, and is free of bacteria). That said however:
Although most common in women because the urethra is in close proximity to the anus-bacteria, as urine travels from the bladder, and ...
Along with references and 450 words of content, this solution discusses how a urine sample can become contaminated as well as the recommended method of collection. A discussion is also provided as to the three major ways antibodies protect against pathogens.