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Urine Sterility, Antibodies and Antigens

1. If urine is normally sterile within the urinary bladder, explain two ways in which urine may become contaminated when obtaining a urine culture.

2. Explain three different ways in which antibodies react with antigens that they are specific to that aid in preventing colonization or infection in the host.

Please provide references.

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Microbiology: Urine Sample

1. Although urine is normally sterile within the urinary bladder; there are a number of ways in which urine may become contaminated when obtaining a urine culture:

Normal urine is sterile: practically free of bacteria and other organisms, yeast and so on. As such, this would be a urine sample from a healthy bladder (a urine sample taken directly from a healthy person's bladder that doesn't have a urinary tract infection, and is free of bacteria). That said however:

Although most common in women because the urethra is in close proximity to the anus-bacteria, as urine travels from the bladder, and ...

Solution Summary

Along with references and 450 words of content, this solution discusses how a urine sample can become contaminated as well as the recommended method of collection. A discussion is also provided as to the three major ways antibodies protect against pathogens.

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