1. Vulnerable and Non-vulnerable species
2. Functional and numerical responses of predators to chnage in prey density
3. Batesian and Müllerian mimicry
4. Microparasites and Macroparasites
5. Facultative mutualism and Obligatory mutualism
6. Fundamental and realized niche.
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S.No. Criteria Vulnerable Non - Vulnerable
1 Reduction in population size over last 10 years or 3 generations > / = 50 % < 50 %
2 Geographic range in the form of
a Extent of occurrence 20000 km2 > 20000 km2
b Area of occupancy 2000 km2 > 2000 km2
3 Population size estimated to number fewer than 10000 mature individuals > 10000 mature individuals
4 Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild in last 10 years is at least 10% < 10%
2. Predation rates increased with increasing prey population density. This resulted from 2 effects:
(1) each predator increased its consumption rate when exposed to a higher prey density, and (2) predator density increased with increasing prey density.
These effects can be visualized as 2 kinds of responses of predator population to prey density:
(1) the functional response and
(2) the numerical response
The functional response assumes that a predator spends its time on 2 kinds of activities:
1. Searching for prey
2. Prey handling which includes: chasing, killing, eating and ...
This solution details and differentiates between different species interactions which include predation, parasitism and mutualism, along with a discussion regarding the niche concept. This solution is provided within an attached Word document.