Niche specialization happens when individuals (they can be plants or animals or any living thing) become specialized at using certain resources. Competitive exclusion is the mechanism by which this happens. Resources are limited so there is competition for their use.
I am going to use a human example first, to help you understand a little better. If you walk into a hospital, you will probably interact with registered nurses, nurse practitioners, triage nurses, general physicians, emergency room physicians, oncologists etc. All of ...
This solution provides a logical breakdown of the concept of niche specialization and the competitive exclusion principle, as well as resource partitioning. The ecological concept is first modeled with a human example and then with the classic warbler-insect specializing experiment of MacArthur (1958)