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Plant Biology: Evolution of Plants

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1. Plants originated in the water, then moved to land. In order to do this, plants had to evolve a number of important structures that enabled their survival on land. Describe the structural changes that had to happen to support this move and discuss the functional importance of each of these structures to the environmental changes the plants had to face.

2. List and describe the primary characteristics that all plants share that define them as plant

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Solution Preview

Plants evolved from algae, which lived in moist, watery environments and to live on land required a number of changes (McLamb 2010; Abedon 2005). They had to evolve a way to keep from drying out so a cuticle evolved to keep water in. They needed a way to exchange gases through the cuticle and the solution was stomata, which evolved to allow carbon dioxide in for photosynthesis and oxygen out. They would need a support system, something to help them stand up on land so a differentiation in tissue above and below ground occurred. This would allow distinct tissues, such as leaves, stems, and roots to form. Leaves helped to increase the area available to take in sunlight, stems provided support and contained the tissues that transported nutrients, roots took up water and nutrients from the soil. Vascular tissue (xylem and phloem) ...

Solution Summary

This solution describes the changes and adaptations that occurred in plants that allowed them to leave their watery environment and take root on land. This solution is 400 words with five references.

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See Also This Related BrainMass Solution

Plant Characteristics Multiple Choice

PLANTS

-All modern plants are probably descendants of

A. Fungi

Green algae

Club mosses

Horsetails

-Protists include

A. Ferns

Gymnosperms

Angiosperms

Green algae

-An adaptation of land plants that inhibits water loss is the

A. cell wall

chloroplast

cuticle

vascular tissue

-During photosynthesis, plants

A. take in oxygen and carbon dioxide

take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide

givee off oxygen and carbon dioxide

take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen

-Rhizoids are structures analogous to

A. Stems

Roots

Leaves

Chloroplast

-The sporophyte generation of plants consists of

A. N cells

2n cells

3n cells

4n cells

-Sporangia are adaptive characteristics of

A. ferns

green algae

gymnosperms

angiosperms

-Seeds enclosed in a fruit are adaptations of

A. angiosperms

nonvascular plants

gymnosperms

green algae

-The plants best adapted to survival in harsh, dry climates are

A. green algae

ferns

liverworts

gymnosperms

-The need for a watery environment for transfer of sperm to egg is an
adaptation found in

A. Mosses

Ferns

Mosses and ferns

Gymnosperms

-Development of the gametophyte within the tissues of the sporophyte is
an
adaptation found in

A. mosses

gymnosperms

angiosperms

gymnosperms and angiosperms

-Flowers are reproductive organs is

Mosses

Ferns

Gymnosperms

Angiosperms

-A small sporophyte generation retained within or supported by the
gametophyte plant is typical of

Mosses

Ferns

Mosses and ferns

Angiosperms

-Wind is one major carrier of gametes for

mosses

ferns

gymnosperms

angiosperms

-Cones are the reproductive organ for

mosses

ferns

gymnosperms

angiosperms

- Seed bearing plants in which the embryo is protected include

ferns

angiosperms

gymnosperms

angiosperms and gymnosperms

-Sepals and petals along with stamens and pistils are present in

mosses

ferns

gymnosperms

angiosperms

-A watery environment is not needed for sperm transfer within

ferns

gymnosperms

angiosperms

angiosperms and gymnosperms

-Bulbs are food storage organs that aid a plant in

spreading out over a large area

surviving over the winter

supplying food for animals and people

resisting infection

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