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    Discrimination of families of ferns & lower vascular plants

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    What characteristics are used to discriminate among the families of ferns and lower vascular plants?
    For example, what characteristics might be used in construction of a key to these families?

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    https://brainmass.com/biology/plant-diversity/discrimination-families-ferns-lower-vascular-plants-127581

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    See the attached file.
    The vascular plants which disperse spores, and do not produce seeds are called the seedless vascular plants or lower vascular plants.

    Lower vascular plants are represented by 4 divisions: Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Lycophyta (Club mosses), Sphenophyta (scouring rushes), and the Pteridophya (ferns). Since reproduction of ferns is executed by spores instead of seeds, they are considered lower ...

    Solution Summary

    This solutions deals with the characteristics that are used to discriminate among the families of ferns and lower vascular plants.

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