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    Regulating Blood Pressure

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    Regulation of blood pressure including preload, afterload, hormones, and blood vessel arrangement. This is a Word document (.doc).

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 5, 2022, 4:45 pm ad1c9bdddf
    https://brainmass.com/biology/human-biology/regulating-blood-pressure-326195

    SOLUTION This solution is FREE courtesy of BrainMass!

    • Blood pressure =cardiac output x peripheral resistance
    • Cardiac output=heart rate x stroke volume
    • If the others are held constant, *usually an increase in HR will increase blood pressure and an increase in stroke volume will increase pressure
    • Stroke volume is affected by preload, afterload, and total volume in the system
    • Increased preload increases stroke volume (to a point) via the Frank-Starling law of the heart and stretching the heart muscle
    • Increased afterload decreases stroke volume because the heart has to work harder to eject the blood
    • Total volume is affected by hydration and all of the mechanisms that influence that
    • Peripheral resistance is affected by vessel diameter and blood viscosity
    • Increases in diameter decrease blood pressure
    • Regulated by the sympathetic nervous system
    • Alpha adrenergic stimulation constricts
    • Beta adrenergic stimulation (in skeletal muscle) dilates
    • Local regulation around working cells via metabolite levels
    • Other hormones
    • Dilators: prostaglandins, kinins
    • Constrictors: angiotensin, epinephrine, calcium
    • Arrangement of vessels (in parallel or series) affects resistance
    • Vessels in a series have a resistance equal to the sum of all individual resistances
    • Vessels in parallel have a resistance equal to the sum of the reciprocals of the individual resistances
    • Increases in viscosity increase pressure
    • Stretch receptors (aorta and carotid sinus)-sense changes in smooth muscle fiber length from blood pressure
    • Communicate with medulla to change heart rate, contractility, and arteriolar diameter
    • Chemoreceptors sense changes in oxygen concentration and pH to control blood pressure via the medulla

    This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here!

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 5, 2022, 4:45 pm ad1c9bdddf>
    https://brainmass.com/biology/human-biology/regulating-blood-pressure-326195

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