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Several Biology Questions

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Part 1

1. Create a table comparing and contrasting the two processes. Include in your comparison variables such as organism type, energy source, cellular location, substrates/reactants/products, full and balanced chemical reaction, carrier molecules, and any other parameter you find relevant.

2. Apart from its essential role in cellular respiration, the mitochondrion is thought to be implicated in a variety of disease states as well as the process of aging. The mitochondrion contains its own circular DNA molecule(s) (termed mtDNA) which largely encodes for proteins localized to the mitochondrion itself.

3. Please provide a hypothesis and suggest an experiment to test the relationship between mtDNA and human aging.

4. Propose a direction for future research and drug development for targeting mtDNA to combat the ageing process.

Part 2

Identify and describe one or two structural and functional differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells that you believe contribute to the ability of eukaryotic cells to form the specialized cells and structures found in multicellular organisms.

While there are several differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells,

Please limit your answer to those structural and functional differences that will assist in the evolution of multicellularity.

Part 3

Choose two organisms that interact with each other, such as bees and flowers, or consider the effect of any environmental factor on an organism, such as light, sound, air quality, food preference, or nutrient quantity or quality .
Now form a simple hypothesis about this interaction.

Include the observation that led you to a hypothesis . Use the scientific method and your imagination to design an experiment that you might do to test this hypothesis.

Be sure to include controls, and describe the variables that would remain constant and the one that you want to test.

(Remember, you can only test one variable at a time.) Describe the type of data you would collect, and how you would evaluate it. What are your expected results (predictions)?

State what your conclusion would be depending on those results. Would these results lead you to accept or reject your hypothesis?

Your format should then look like this:

Introduction: Describe your observation. Include any background information you may have found.
Hypothesis: Write a statement that describes your explanation for the observation.
Methods: Describe the experiment, variables to be held constant, variable to be tested, and controls.
Predictions: What do you predict as outcomes (results) of this experiment?
Conclusions: Do you accept or reject or accept hypothesis? Explain why.

Remember, you don't have to actually do the experiment, just write what you would do to test your idea

***See attached file for full problem description.***

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https://brainmass.com/biology/genetics/several-biology-questions-99604

Attachments

Solution Preview

Please see the attached file.

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis co-exist as paired processes. Photosynthesis converts light energy into organic molecules such as carbohydrates. These molecules are picked up and utilized as fuel sources in organisms that employ Cellular Respiration for production of ATP and CO2.

Although it appears that Photosynthesis has preceded Cellular Respiration by billions of years, the processes share many structural features.

1. Create a table comparing and contrasting the two processes. Include in your comparison variables such as organism type, energy source, cellular location, substrates/reactants/products, full and balanced chemical reaction, carrier molecules, and any other parameter you find relevant.

Photosynthesis Respiration
organisms green plants, some bacteria all living organisms
description light is converted into energy used the chemical bonds of molecules (glucose) are broken for cellular processes, in the down, releasing energy used for cellular form of ATP, NADPH, processes, in the form of ATP
and eventually, glucose
energy source water, light, carbon dioxide glucose, oxygen
products carbohydrates, oxygen water, carbon dioxide
basic equation 6CO2+12H2O+energy=C6H12O6+6O2+6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
cellular location chloroplasts mitochondria (in eukaryotes), cell membrane (in prokaryotes)

2. Apart from its essential role in cellular respiration, the mitochondrion is thought to be implicated in a variety of disease states as well as the process of aging. The mitochondrion contains its own circular DNA molecule(s) (termed mtDNA) which largely encodes for proteins localized to the mitochondrion itself.
3. Please provide a hypothesis and suggest an experiment to test the relationship between mtDNA and human aging.

Mutations in mtDNA genes have been linked to several diseases and to the aging process. Many of the symptoms of mtDNA-linked diseases are seen in elderly people (alzheimer's disease, diabetes, muscle weakness, vision loss, etc.). It is hypothesized that mitochondria are involved in the aging process because a byproduct of cellular respiration is oxygen free radicals, which can attack the proteins ...

Solution Summary

This problem set has three parts: (1) a comparison of cellular respiration and photosynthesis and a hypothesis about mtDNA and the aging process, (2) a discussion of the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and (3) an example of an interaction between organisms, a hypothesis about that interaction, and a possible experiment that would test the hypothesis.

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