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questions regarding genes and chromosomes

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What are start codon, stop codon and reading frame?

How was the alkaptonuria (black urine disease) mutation identified?

How did human populations adapt to alcohol consumption and how did they adapt to milk consumption in adult life?

Hello I am writing a paper and want to clarify some of these topics. I am not a very scientific person some of these terms and adaptations cropped up in a reading... these are the questions I came up with at the end

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START CODON: Usually AUG in mRNA acts as start codon. it codes for methionine. initiating methionine molecule is in formylated state.this makes a distinction between initiating methioninie and methionine at internal position. Rarely GUG
codon acts as initiating codon. When GUG acts as ...

Solution Summary

Inquiries about genes and chromosomes are noted.