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Difference in folding characteristics of Pro-Insulin and Insulin

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Explains why pro-insulin can be refolded but not insulin (following Anifansen's experiments with ribonuclease)

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In Anfinsen's original experiment, he denatured ribonuclease with 8M urea (this is a dissociating solvent and breaks all weak bonds). 2-mercaptoethanol is a reducing agent and reduces disulphide bridges to SH groups (sulphydryl), thus breaking them. This converts the enzyme to a random ...

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The solution explains why pro-insulin can be refolded but not insulin. The Anifansen's experiments with ribonuclease are given.

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Determine the glucose tolerance of two different patients by generating and using a standard curve to calculate the amount of glucose in their blood before and after eating.

This lab provided a 100mM Glucose standard solution which you are required to dilute with water to give final concentrations of 0,0.4,0.8,1.2,1.6 and 2.0 mmol/L glucose in a final volume 0.5ml. You will then use those concentrations to generate a standard curve using a spectrophotometer in order to calculate the amount of glucose in two different patient samples. Here are the absorbance-measurements of the six tubes: tube 1:0,tube 2:0.310, tube3:0.611, tube4:0.938, tube 5:1.016, tube6: 1.021

This solution will address the following:
1)produce a table of dilutions
2)prepare a 10-fold diluted 'patient sample ' from the above data to give 0.5ml final volume.Perform the 'patient samples' in duplicate.Absorbance for each solution taken at 550nm.
3)Results were obtained by measuring absorbances for the 2patients at time=0 and time=2hours to check glucose tolerance. So, time 0/patient 1 absorb=0.855 and 0.876 and patient 2 absorb=0.782 and 0.788 then at time 2hours we got for patient 1 absorb=0.748 and 0.752 and patient 2 absorb.=0.710 and 0.692.(remember is duplicated) From all this data use EXCEL to construct standard curves and determine the concentrations of the 2patient samples
4)Convert the values obtained in mmol/L into mg/dL and explain how
5)Use WHO guidelines for the diagnosis of diabetes to interprete the patients results during this Glucose Tolerance Test.
6)What component in Lucozade(given as a glucose resource) may have an adverse effect on the results of the Glucose Tolerance Test?

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