1. Imagine a male bird migrating back north after a long, tough winter in Central America, Assume it flies during the day. Also assume that males of this species return to the same patch of grassland where they were the previous summer and that they are territorial. Finally, assume that this species is monogamous (male-female pairs) and can produce two clutches of offspring each summer.
a. What are two benefits that males of this species might gain by being migratorial?
b. What are two potential costs these individuals might incur during migration?
c. What must these males need to know and be able to do in order to use the sun for compass orientation?
d. Tell what other cues the males could use in this migratory return to their previous homesites and describe how they could orient or navigate using these cues. Remember that they fly during the daytime.© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 24, 2018, 8:38 pm ad1c9bdddf
1.a. In this example the male migrates north following the end of winter during the day to the same nesting grounds and partner as the previous year. The question asks for two advantages to the male for this behavior. The first advantage is wintering in a milder and gentler climate saves energy and increase the male's survival rate. The second benefit is that in moving to wintering grounds they have a fresh supply of food to consume before the return to the mating grounds.
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This solution discusses the advantages and considerations of migration and migratory cues in 305 words.
The interaction between a predator and its prey is an example of
1. The interaction between a predator and its prey is an example of
A. coevolution. C. directional selection.
B. stabilizing selection. D. resource partitioning.
2. Why are birds often selected indicator species?
A. They react to change quickly.
B. They're high on the typical chain.
C. They're more likely to include endangered species.
D. They inhabit diverse habitat niches.
3. One type of forest beetle found in the Pacific Northwest feeds only on rotting blossoms that fall from trees to the forest floor. Members of this species are best described as
A. carnivores. C. herbivores.
B. decomposers. D. detritivores.
4. Rabbits newly introduced to a habitat showed a pattern of logistic growth for months until competition for resources began to balance the birth rate with the death rate. This habitat has reached its
A. carrying capacity. C. growth rate level.
B. density level. D. limiting factor.
5. Marler's experiments with white-crowned nestlings demonstrate that
A. behavior arises from both genetic expression and experience.
B. bird songs are acquired by instinct alone.
C. bird songs are learned behavior.
D. bird songs are acquired at the age of sexual maturity.
6. Which of the following pollutants is responsible for the increase in skin cancers and cataracts over the past 10 years?
A. Nitric oxide
B. Acid rain
C. Use of chlorofluorocarbons
D. Chlorine monoxide from automobiles
7. How have humans managed to increase the carrying capacity of the environment?
A. Through development of vaccinations
B. Through adaptability due to high-level brain functioning
C. Through industrialization
D. Through the development of agricultural practices
8. Which of the following is an example of resource partitioning?
A. Two species of birds that eat fruit from the same tree
B. Two species of mice?one eats seeds; the other eats insects
C. Two species of squirrels?one eats acorns from the branches; one eats acorns that have fallen
D. A species of butterfly and a species of bee that pollinate the same flower
9. Tracking a _______ reveals patterns of death, reproduction, and migration that typify the populations of a species.
A. survivorship C. cohort
B. biotic potential D. generation
10. Regarding hot spots, which statement is true?
A. They're found in all biomes.
B. They're less vulnerable to species loss.
C. There's too little rainfall to irrigate crops.
D. They're rich in biodiversity.
11. When a male grizzly is in the presence of a female during breeding season, he'll stand up on his hind feet while hunching his shoulders if another male begins to approach. This is
A. tactile display. C. threat display.
B. illegitimate signal. D. courtship display.
12. In a food web, if the number of food chain connections is decreasing, you'll find more
A. species. C. unrelated species.
B. herbivores. D. carnivores.
13. In a biogeochemical cycle, nutrient molecules flow _______ through the environment
and _______ among the organisms who live there.
A. slowly, quickly C. quickly, slowly
B. slowly, slowly D. quickly, quickly
14. Which of the following will cause a predator-prey relationship to be thrown off balance?
A. Food levels remain steady.
B. Faster reproduction in prey than in predators
C. Equal reproductive rates in both species
D. A third neutral species is introduced into the environment.
15. Regarding soils, which statement is true?
A. Clay topsoils tend to be deficient in minerals.
B. Agriculture is most likely to flourish where there are loam topsoils.
C. Topsoils with more humus tend to be less subject to erosion.
D. Loam and clay soils are more prone to leaching than are sandy soils.
16. In Stevan Arnold's experiments with coastal garter snakes, how did the hatchling snakes know banana slugs were an acceptable food?
A. They learned the behavior from their mother.
B. They simply preferred the taste of slugs to other sampled foods.
C. They were only presented with one choice of food.
D. They possess a gene affecting this behavior.
17. What source of renewable energy for human needs could supply four-fifths of the U.S. requirement in the immediate future?
A. Coal C. Solar cells
C. Wind farms D. Nuclear power
18. The third trophic level for a given environment is composed of
A. primary producers. C. second-level consumers.
B. first-level consumers. D. third-level consumers.
19. Humans in the United States exhibit a _______ survivorship curve.
A. Type I C. Type III
B. Type II D. Type IV
20. Two species in a community survive by eating the same type of fruit. Neither species benefits from their identical diet. Their relationship is called
A. symbiosis. C. mutualism.
B. commensalism. D. interspecific competition.
21. In locations where air descends at latitudes near 30 degrees, we tend to find
A. deserts. C. polar regions.
B. tropical rainforests. D. equatorial forests.
22. Rising sea level, an increasing number of wildfires, increasing levels of contagious disease, and fighting over water are all possible outcomes of
A. imbalances in the carbon cycle.
B. the greenhouse effect.
C. leaching of phosphorus from sediments
D. water loss to the atmosphere.
23. _______ is probably the Earth's best choice as an energy alternative because it's reliable, renewable, and doesn't cause air pollution.
A. Solar-hydrogen energy C. Wind energy
B. Nuclear energy D. Fossil fuel
24. The rooted aquatic plants in a lake are found in the _______ zone.
A. littoral C. profundal
B. limnetic D. thermocline
25. If subordinate males in dominance hierarchies aren't allowed to mate, why do they remain in the group?
A. They're threatened by the dominant male if they try to leave.
B. A solitary existence increases chances of predation.
C. Infectious disease is less likely to threaten large groups.
D. Social groups occupy the only suitable habitats.