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    Foraging, Pastoralism, Progress & Ancient Technology

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    1) What are several ways Ju/'hoansi social organization relates to the subsistence pattern of hunting and gathering? What are ways Ju/'hoansi society is likely to change as the foraging way of life is eroded?

    2) What are several criticisms of the Western notion of "progress" from an anthropological viewpoint?

    3) What is the ancient technology reintroduced by Archaeologist Ann Kendall that has improved the lives of the people in an Andean country? Why was this technology lost to begin with? Where was it reintroduced and why? What impact is it having on the quality of life of the people of the area where it was reintroduced?

    4) Using the Bakhtiari specifically, what are several key features of pastoralism?

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    Dear Student,
    Hello. I imagine that all these anthropological subject matter are introduced and discussed in your current material and since you did not indicate or add as an attachment the material you are using, the answers below are from general anthropology materials. They are concise but should get you started in the right direction. Please check with your materials to add more course-specific answers in your final submission.

    OTA 105878/Xenia Jones

    The Ju/'hoansi

    The Ju/'Hoansi, Ju-wasi or the !Kung bushmen live in particular sites along the Kalahari and were the subject of study of anthropologist Richard Borsay Lee via an immersion project. Until the later part of the 20th century they were largely hunter-gatherers and still practices said way of life for the most part due to the conditions of their environment even if most of the !Kung have created semi-permanent settlements. Their social organization is organized primarily around the need for cooperation to ensure survival. The Kalahari is a harsh and unforgiving landscape so clans and tribal organization with specific social hierarchy ensure that duties are delegated. One of the issues that Lee encountered with his OX-Dinner problem showed the need to 'tone down' pride in a bid to make everybody feel equal despite all member's obvious skills, talents and capacities. This is so that the stronger looks after the weaker in accordance with family and clan structures. So while the strong and younger members hunt, the elders become the source of governance and leadership - women, children and the rest of the non-hunters help in foraging (or these days, finding odd jobs outside of the tribe) to contribute to the food and other needs of their clan and family members. With the family the smallest unit, conflict is resolved by the council of the elders and despite the 'bigger contribution' of the other party, the elders strive to make no biased judgements 'to take them down to earth'. With the foraging and hunting-gathering economy now getting more difficult, settlement has introduced modern commerce to the !Kung and the challenge is, since capitalism empowers individuals who practice it, economically and socially, can they still impose the tribe-sharing and equality practice? Also, will they give up the semi-nomadic lifestyle to enable them to create permanent dwellings and participate in the more modern way of life (practicing whatever trade they could) being that hunting & gathering in the Kalahari is becoming more challenging due to social and ...

    Solution Summary

    The solution is a complex selection of anthropological topics in relation to subsistence and hunting and gathering practices of the Ju/'hoansi and the pastoralist practices of Iran's Bakhtiari tribe. The Western notion of progress is discussed from an anthropological viewpoint. Additionally the work of Ann Kendall in reintroducing an ancient agricultural practice and its impact in the quality of life in the Andes is also presented. The solution sums up to 1,523 words. The solution follows the APA format. References are listed for expansion (web and print). A word version is attached for easy printing.