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Hypothesis Testing, Descriptive Statistics &Pooled Variance

Hello. I am doing my homework assignment and I cannot figure out and understand how to solve some of the problems. I have answered the questions that I am able to, but I cannot answer the other ones no matter how hard I have tried. Can you PLEASE include step-by-step instuctions on how to solve the problems. If I get behind with this, I won't be able to figure out next week's assignments. Because the course is online, it is impossible to really get any help or questions answered from the instructor, so I'm stuck.

1. Several factors influence the value obtained for a t statistic. Some factors affect the numerator of the t statistic and others influence the size of the estimated standard error in the denominator. For each of the following, indicate whether the factor influences the numerator or dominator of the t statistic and determine whether the effect would be to increase the value of t (farther from zero) or decrease the value of t (closer to zero). In each case, assume that all other factors remain constant.
a. Increase the variability of the scores.
b. Increase the number of scores in the sample.
c. Increase the difference between the sample mean and the population mean.

2. The following sample was obtained from a population with unknown parameters.
Scores: 1, 5, 1, 1
a. Compute the sample mean and standard deviation. (Note that these are descriptive values that summarize the sample data).
b. Compute the estimated standard error for M. (Note that this is an inferential value that describes how accurately the sample mean represents the unknown population mean).

3. A sample of n = 25 individuals is randomly selected from a population with a mean of u = 65, and a treatment is administered to the individuals in the sample. After treatment, the sample mean is found to be M = 70.
a. If the sample standard deviation is s = 10, are the data sufficient to conclude that the treatment has a significant effect using a two-tailed test with x = .05?
b. If the sample standard deviation is s= 20, are the data sufficient to conclude that the treatment has a significant effect using a two-tailed test with x = .05?

4. The herbal supplement ginkgo biloba is advertised as producing an increase in physical strength and stamina. To test this claim, a sample of n = 36 adults is obtained and each person is instructed to take the regular daily dose of the herb for a period of 30 days. At the end of the 30-day period, each person is tested on a standard treadmill task for which the average, age-adjusted score is u = 15. The individuals in the sample produce a mean score of M = 16.9 with SS = 1260.
a. Are these data sufficient to conclude that the herb has a statistically significant effect using a two-tailed test with x = .05?
b. What decision would be made if the researcher used a one-tailed test with x = .05 ? (Assume that the herb is expected to increase scores.)

5. What is measure by the estimated standard error that is used for the independent-measure t statistic?

6. One sample has SS = 35 and a second has SS = 45.
a. Assuming that n= 6 for both samples, calculate each of the sample variances, then calculate the pooled variance. Because the samples are the same size, you should find that the pooled variance is exactly halfway between the two sample variances.
b. Now assume that n = 6 for the first sample and n = 16 for the second. Again, calculate the two sample variances and the pooled variance. You should find that the pooled variance is closer to the variance for the larger sample.

7. One sample has n = 4 scores with SS = 100 and a second sample has n = 8 scores with SS = 140.
a. Calculate the pooled variance for the two samples.
b. Calculate the estimated standard error for the sample mean difference.
c. If the sample mean difference is 6 points, is this enough to reject the null hypothesis for a two-tailed test with x = .05?
d. If the sample mean difference is 9 points, is this enough to reject the null hypothesis for a two-tailed test with x = .05?

Solution Summary

The solution provides step by step method for the calculation of sample variance, standard error, pooled variance and test statistic for population mean. The solution also provides information on various factors affecting the t statistic. Formula for the calculation and Interpretations of the results are also included. Interactive excel sheet is included. The user can edit the inputs and obtain the complete results for a new set of data.

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